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Loveridge's Sunbird Nectarinia loveridgei
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Justification
This species is listed as Endangered because it has a very small range, and occurs in only one forest tract (divided into two sections with a reforestation corridor between them), where its forest habitat is being slowly, but continuously, degraded. Improved land management would reduce pressure to expand farmland, and hence reverse habitat degradation. In such a case, where habitat extent and quality remained stable, the species could be downlisted to a lower category of threat.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Taxonomic note
Nectarinia loveridgei and N. moreaui (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) are retained as species contra Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993) who include moreaui as a subspecies of N. loveridgei.

Identification
11cm. Small sunbird with long curved bill. Male has head and upperparts iridescent green. Thin violet breast band, with large trianglular orange-red breast patch separating large yellow lateral feather tufts, and yellow-olive flanks to vent. Female is greenish-olive above, with head and throat greyer, and underparts yellower. Similar spp. Male similar to Regal Sunbird Nectarinia regia of the Albertine Rift, but has duller yellow-olive flanks and vent, rather than red vent. Female very similar to Moreau's and Eastern Double-collared Sunbird Nectarinia moreaui and fuelleborni. Distinguished from these species by range and voice. Voice Song is a 3-4 second fast and rolling rattle of high-pitched tsi notes, often preceeded by a few introductory double tsp-tee notes. Call is a sharp chip, tsk or pzit.

Distribution and population
This species is entirely confined to the Uluguru Nature Reserve (previously split into Uluguru North, Uluguru South and Bunduki Forest Reserves) in Tanzania, although it may occasionally wander to Shikurufumi and Kasanga Forest Reserves. The global population size has been estimated at between 21,000 and 166,000 individuals, with a likely figure of 37,000 individuals (Tøttrup et al. 2004).

Population justification
The total population has been estimated at between 21,000 and 166,000 individuals, with a likely figure of 37,000 individuals.

Trend justification
The species's population is believed to be declining very slowly due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation (A. Tøttrup in litt. 2006; N. Burgess in litt. 2006).

Ecology
This species prefers sub-montane to montane forest between 1,200 and 2,560 m in altitude (A. Tøttrup in litt. 2005, Tøttrup and Larsen 2005), and appears to be rather intolerant of habitat degradation (N. Cordeiro in litt. 2006, A. Tøttrup in litt. 2006), although it has been known to wander into, and occasionally breed in, non-forest habitats (Cheke et al. 2001, N. Cordeiro in litt. 2006). The breeding season is believed to be protracted, lasting from at least August to March (Tøttrup and Larsen 2005). Closed nests contain two or three eggs, are made of grass and moss, and are hung from branches several metres (mean 3.1 m, range 1.5-10 m) above the ground (Tøttrup and Larsen 2005). Observations suggest that only the female incubates the eggs (Tøttrup and Larsen 2005). The diet is comprised largely of nectar, supplemented with insects (Cheke et al. 2001, Tøttrup and Larsen 2005). The species is often gregarious around flowering plants and trees, but also feeds alone and in pairs, and joins mixed flocks (Tøttrup and Larsen 2005).

Threats
Extensive habitat loss, mostly due to conversion to cultivation, has occurred in the Ulugurus (Burgess et al. 2002, Hall et al. 2009), but this has so far generally been at lower altitudes than those preferred by this species (Tøttrup et al. 2004). Slow loss and degradation of forest habitat within the Uluguru Nature Reserve in the main threat to this species (N. Burgess in litt. 2012). This has consisted of cutting for firewood and some timber, leading to loss of tree cover and consequent increases of thicket tangles and invasive brambles (N. Burgess in litt. 2006). It is unclear how much effect such slow degradation is having on the species's population, but it is presumed to be declining as a result.

Conservation Actions Underway
The full range of the species now comes under the protection of the Uluguru Nature Reserve, which was created by the government in 2009 and linked three existing reserves, known as Uluguru North, Uluguru South and Bunduki Forest Reserves. The boundaries of the Uluguru Nature Reserve have been cleared and planted in recent years, and management agreements have been made with surrounding communities (N. Burgess in litt. 2012).  The deforested Bunduki ‘corridor’ that links the northern and southern forest blocks within the Uluguru Nature Reserve is in the process of being replanted with native tree species (N. Burgess in litt. 2012). Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out further surveys to obtain a more accurate estimate of the population. Conduct repeat surveys to monitor the species's population trends. Monitor the clearance and degradation of forest in its range. Conduct research to further clarify the tolerance of this species to habitat degradation. Improve management effectiveness of the Uluguru Nature Reserve.

References
Burgess, N.; Doggart, N.; Lovett, J. C. 2002. The Uluguru Mountains of eastern Tanzania: the effect of forest loss on biodiversity. Oryx 36: 140-152.

Cheke, R. A.; Mann, C. F.; Allen, R. 2001. Sunbirds: a guide to the sunbirds, flowerpeckers, spiderhunters and sugarbirds of the world. Christopher Helm, London.

Hall, J.; Burgess, N.D.; Lovett, J.; Mbilinyi, B.; Gereau, R.E. 2009. Conservation implications of deforestation across an elevational gradient in the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania. Biological Conservation 142: 2510-2521.

Tottrup, A. P.; Larsen, J. L. 2005. First description of the egg with other notes on the biology of Loveridge's Sunbird Nectarinia loveridgei. Scopus 25: 37-40.

Tottrup, A. P.; Larsen, J. L.; Burgess, N.D. 2004. A first estimate of the population size of Loveridge's Sunbird Nectarinia loveridgei, endemic to the Uluguru mountains, Tanzania. Bird Conservation International 14: 25-32.

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Pilgrim, J., Robertson, P., Starkey, M., Symes, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Burgess, N., Cordeiro, N., Fjeldså, J., Tøttrup, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Nectarinia loveridgei. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Loveridge's sunbird (Nectarinia loveridgei) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Nectariniidae (Sunbirds)
Species name author (Hartert, 1922)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 260 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species