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Neergaard's Sunbird Nectarinia neergardi

Justification
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it has a moderately small population, which may be in decline owing to the clearance of its native forest habitats. Confirmation of its population size and the severity of habitat loss may qualify the species for a higher threat category (Barnes 2000).

Taxonomic source(s)
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Synonym(s)
Nectarinia neergaardi Collar et al. (1994), Nectarinia neergaardi BirdLife International (2000), Nectarinia neergaardi Collar and Andrew (1988), Nectarinia neergaardi Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)

Distribution and population
Nectarinia neergardi occurs from just south of Richard's Bay in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to Inhambane, southern Mozambique (Harrison et al. 1997). It is restricted to the coastal belt, but atlas data do not suggest any range retraction. In Mozambique, it has two widely separated populations; one south of Maputo and the other north of the Limpopo River (Cheke and Mann 2001).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as not uncommon (Cheke et al. 2001).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction.

Ecology
This species is a sometimes common, but nomadic, species of woodland, especially dry, dense forest on sandy soil. It also inhabits coastal scrubland and has been recorded in isolated trees in clearings and villages (Cheke and Mann 2001). It is found only at low elevations and apparently avoids fragmented coastal forest (Clancey 1985). It consumes nectar, small insects and spiders (Cheke and Mann 2001). The nest, in which a clutch-size of two has been recorded, is suspended from a tree and made of cream-coloured fibrous material, feathers and down, and camouflaged with insect larvae and other debris. Observations suggest that breeding activity occurs in September-January and possibly July (Cheke and Mann 2001).

Threats
In southern Mozambique, the species's coastal forest habitat is highly threatened, particularly by commercial logging and afforestation with non-native tree species (Parker 1999).

Conservation Actions Underway
A large proportion of its range in northern KwaZulu-Natal falls within nature reserves. Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to obtain a total population estimate. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor rates of logging and afforestation with exotic species across its range. Protect significant areas of suitable forest, in both strictly protected areas and community led multiple use areas.

References
Barnes, K. N. 2000. The Eskom Red Data Book of birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Cheke, R. A.; Mann, C. F.; Allen, R. 2001. Sunbirds: a guide to the sunbirds, flowerpeckers, spiderhunters and sugarbirds of the world. Christopher Helm, London.

Clancey, P. A. 1985. The rare birds of southern Africa. Winchester Press, Johannesburg.

Harrison, J. A.; Allan, D. G.; Underhill, L. G.; Herremans, M.; Tree, A. J.; Parker, V.; Brown, C. J. 1997. The atlas of southern African birds. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Parker, V. 1999. The atlas of the birds of Sul do Save, southern Mozambique. Avian Demography Unit and Endangered Wildlife Trust., Cape Town and Johannesburg.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
O'Brien, A., Robertson, P., Starkey, M., Symes, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Parker, V.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Nectarinia neergardi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Neergaard’s sunbird (Nectarinia neergardi)

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Nectariniidae (Sunbirds)
Species name author (Grant, 1908)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 144,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change