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This species has a very small and severely fragmented range. Away from its strongholds in Arabuko-Sokoke and the East Usambaras, it is found only very locally, even within suitable evergreen forest habitat. Forest clearance and alteration are ongoing over much of its range, and its population and range are therefore presumed to be declining. For these reasons, it is listed as Endangered.
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
9 cm. Small woodland sunbird. At close range, upperparts and head of male are iridescent, deep green. Belly, flanks and vent contrasting white. When agitated, shows red pectoral tufts. Female overall greyish. Similar spp. Female Plain-backed Sunbird A. reichenowi has olive and yellow tones. Voice Song high-pitched jumble of chissick's and other unmusical notes. Contact call seeet seeet. Hints Most reliably and frequently seen at Arabuko-Sokoke Forest, Kenya, and around Amani in the East Usambaras, Tanzania.
Britton, P. L.; Zimmerman, D. A. 1979. The avifauna of Sokoke forest, Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 169: 1-15.
Collar, N. J.; Stuart, S. N. 1985. Threatened birds of Africa and related islands: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge, U.K.
Dinesen, L.; Lehmberg, T.; Svendsen, J. O.; Hansen, L. A. 1993. Range extensions and other notes on some restricted-range forest birds from West Kilombero in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Scopus 17: 48-59.
Fanshawe, J. H. 1995. The effects of selective logging on the bird community of Arabuko-Sokoke forest, Kenya. Dissertation. Ph.D., University of Oxford.
Evans, T. D. 1997. Records of birds from the forests of the East Usambara lowlands, Tanzania, August 1994 - February 1995. Scopus 19: 92-108.
Fanshawe, J. 1997. Second Annual Report of the Arabuko-Sokoke Forest Management and Conservation Project to the European Commission.
Bennun, L.; Njoroge, P. 1999. Important Bird Areas in Kenya. Nature Kenya, Nairobi.
Cordeiro, N. J. 1998. A preliminary survey of the montane avifauna of Mt Nilo, East Usambaras, Tanzania. Scopus 20: 1-18.
Seddon, N.; Ekstrom, J. M. M.; Capper, D. R.; Isherwood, I. S.; Muna, R.; Pople, R. G.; Tarimo, E.; Timothy, J. 1999. The importance of the Nilo and Nguu North Forest Reserves for the conservation of montane forest birds in Tanzania. Biological Conservation 87: 59-72.
Seddon, N.; Ekstrom, J. M. M.; Capper, D. R.; Isherwood, I. S.; Muna, R.; Pople, R. G.; Tarimo, E.; Timothy, J. 1999. Notes on the ecology and conservation status of key bird species in Nilo and Nguu North Forest Reserves, Tanzania. Bird Conservation International 9: 9-28.
Fjeldså, J. 1999. The impact of human forest disturbance on the endemic avifauna of the Udzungwa mountains, Tanzania. Bird Conservation International 9: 47-62.
Davis, J. A. 2000. Density and abundance estimates of a threatened sunbird in the Arabuko-Sokoke forest.
Dinesen, L.; Lehmberg, T.; Rahner, M. C.; Fjeldsa, J. 2001. Conservation priorities for the forests of the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, based on primates, duikers and birds. Biological Conservation 99: 223-236.
Davis, J. A. 2005. Density and population estimates of Amani Sunbird Anthreptes pallidigaster in Kenya's Arabuko-Sokoke Forest. Bird Conservation International 15: 53-62.
Borghesio, L.; John, J. R. M.; Mulungu, E.; Mkongewa, V.; Joho, M.; Cordeiro, N. J. 2008. Observations of threatened birds in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 15(1): 59-70.
Further web sources of information
View photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection
Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Evans, M., Shutes, S., Starkey, M., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Temple, H.
Borghesio, L., Dinesen, L., Fjeldså, J., Jackson, C.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Anthreptes pallidigaster. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/05/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/05/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Endangered|
|Species name author||Sclater & Moreau, 1935|
|Population size||1500-7000 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||870 km2|
|Links to further information|
- Additional Information on this species|
- Climate change species distributions