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LC
Eurasian Skylark Alauda arvensis

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 33,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.3 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 40,000,000-80,000,000 breeding pairs, equating to 120,000,000-240,000,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 245,000,000-960,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Korea; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population is estimated to be in decline following marked regional declines in recent decades linked to agricultural intensification (del Hoyo et al. 2004). In Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes    
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant        
Andorra Native Extant Yes      
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Australia Introduced Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes    
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant       Yes
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Canada Introduced Extant       Yes
Chad Vagrant Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Croatia Native Extant       Yes
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant     Yes Yes
Egypt Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant       Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes      
Finland Native Extant     Yes Yes
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Greece Native Extant     Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) Vagrant Extant        
Hungary Native Extant Yes      
India Native Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant   Yes    
Ireland Native Extant       Yes
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant     Yes Yes
Japan Native Extant Yes      
Jordan Native Extant   Yes    
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes    
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant Yes      
Lithuania Native Extant       Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant       Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Malta Native Extant   Yes    
Mauritania Vagrant Extant        
Moldova Native Extant     Yes Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Morocco Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
New Zealand Introduced Extant Yes      
North Korea Native Extant Yes      
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant        
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Qatar Native Extant   Yes    
Romania Native Extant       Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
San Marino Native Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes    
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
South Korea Native Extant Yes      
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Native Extant       Yes
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Ukraine Native Extant       Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes
USA Introduced Extant       Yes
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Western Sahara Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bulgaria Zlatiata site factsheet
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region) site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya) site factsheet
Russia (European) Orenburgski Nature Reserve site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) major breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Alauda arvensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Alaudidae (Larks)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 33,000,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species