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Wood Lark Lullula arborea
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass 26.8999996185303 g


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,110,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,890,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 1300000-3300000 breeding pairs, equating to 3900000-9900000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 75-94% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 4150000-13200000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.
Trend justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2011 was stable, based on provisional data for 27 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Vagrant Extant        
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant        
Andorra Native Extant Yes      
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant Yes      
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes      
Bahrain Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant       Yes
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Croatia Native Extant       Yes
Cyprus Native Extant       Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Egypt Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant       Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Finland Native Extant       Yes
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant        
Greece Native Extant       Yes
Hungary Native Extant Yes      
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant       Yes
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Native Extant Yes      
Italy Native Extant       Yes
Jordan Native Extant       Yes
Kazakhstan Vagrant Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes    
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant       Yes
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Vagrant Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Native Extant Yes      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Malta Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant Yes      
Monaco Native Extant        
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Morocco Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Romania Native Extant Yes      
Russia Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Vagrant Extant        
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
San Marino Native Extant        
Saudi Arabia Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sweden Native Extant Yes      
Switzerland Native Extant Yes      
Syria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Ukraine Native Extant Yes      
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems site factsheet
Austria Lower Kamp valley site factsheet
Austria Thermenlinie site factsheet
Austria Western Waldviertel site factsheet
Belgium De Maten site factsheet
Belgium Gebieden gelegen te Houthalen-Helchteren en Meeuwen-Gruitrode site factsheet
Belgium Hamonterheide, Hageven, Buitenheide, Mariahof en Stamprooierbroek site factsheet
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel site factsheet
Belgium Mechelse Heide en de Vallei van de Ziepbeek site factsheet
Belgium Sinémurienne site factsheet
Bulgaria Emine site factsheet
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain site factsheet
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge site factsheet
Bulgaria Ludogorie site factsheet
Bulgaria Sredna Gora site factsheet
Bulgaria Strandzha site factsheet
Bulgaria Western Balkan site factsheet
Cyprus Adelphoi Forest - Papoutsa site factsheet
Cyprus Atsas-Agios Theodoros Area site factsheet
Cyprus Pafos Forest site factsheet
Cyprus Troodos Forest site factsheet
Cyprus Xylourikos Valley site factsheet
Czech Republic Boletice site factsheet
Czech Republic Bzenecka Doubrava-Straznicke Pomoravi site factsheet
Czech Republic Ceskolipsko - Dokeské pískovce sandstones and wetlands site factsheet
Czech Republic Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest) site factsheet
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region) site factsheet
Estonia Lahemaa site factsheet
Estonia Luitemaa site factsheet
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar site factsheet
Estonia Põhja-Kõrvemaa site factsheet
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune site factsheet
France Barois et Forêt de Clairvaux site factsheet
France Bec de Crigne site factsheet
France Chaîne des Alpilles site factsheet
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides site factsheet
France Estuaire de la Canche site factsheet
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan site factsheet
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan site factsheet
France Forêt de Haguenau site factsheet
France Forêts du Perche site factsheet
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles site factsheet
France Gorges du Rieutord-Fage-Cagnasses site factsheet
France Haut Val d'Allier site factsheet
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais site factsheet
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne site factsheet
France Massif des Albères site factsheet
France Massif du Petit Lubéron site factsheet
France Minervois site factsheet
France Montagne de la Serre site factsheet
France Montagne Sainte-Victoire site factsheet
France Parc National des Ecrins site factsheet
France Plateau Ardennais site factsheet
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux site factsheet
France Sologne Bourbonnaise site factsheet
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze site factsheet
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron site factsheet
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire site factsheet
France Vallée du Régino site factsheet
Italy Agri Valley site factsheet
Italy Ernici and Simbruini mountains site factsheet
Italy Foreste Casentinesi site factsheet
Italy Ligurian Alps site factsheet
Italy Maritime Alps site factsheet
Italy Selva del Lamone site factsheet
Italy Sila Grande site factsheet
Italy Susa and Chisone valleys site factsheet
Lithuania Dzukija National Park site factsheet
Lithuania Initial area of Aukstaitija NP site factsheet
Lithuania Labanoras Regional Park site factsheet
Lithuania Lithuanian part of the Curonian Spit site factsheet
Lithuania Simonys & Ramuldava forest complex site factsheet
Luxembourg Dudelange Haard site factsheet
Luxembourg Esch/Alzette South-east site factsheet
Luxembourg Mines of the region of Differdange site factsheet
Netherlands Brabantse Wal site factsheet
Netherlands De Hamert/Bergerbossen site factsheet
Netherlands Leenderbos and Groote Heide site factsheet
Netherlands Loonse and Drunense Duinen site factsheet
Netherlands Veluwe site factsheet
Netherlands Weerter-and Budelerbergen site factsheet
Poland Augustów forest site factsheet
Poland Biala Forest site factsheet
Poland Forest at Gwda River site factsheet
Poland Kurpie Site site factsheet
Poland Lower Silesia Forests site factsheet
Poland Notec Forest site factsheet
Poland Pisz forest site factsheet
Poland Solska Forest site factsheet
Poland Tuchola Forest site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Monchique site factsheet
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão site factsheet
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi site factsheet
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Nordice ale Munţilor Făgăraş site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Târnavelor - Valea Nirajului site factsheet
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului site factsheet
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel site factsheet
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa site factsheet
Romania Piatra Şoimului - Scorţeni - Gârleni site factsheet
Romania Podişul Hârtibaciului site factsheet
Romania Trascău Mountains site factsheet
Russia (European) Buzulukski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes site factsheet
Russia (European) Racheyski forest site factsheet
Serbia Deliblatska pescara site factsheet
Slovakia Cerová upland and Rimava valley site factsheet
Slovakia Laborecka upland site factsheet
Slovakia Polana site factsheet
Slovakia Slanské hills site factsheet
Slovakia Slovenský karst site factsheet
Slovenia Banjšice plateau site factsheet
Slovenia Goričko site factsheet
Slovenia Karst site factsheet
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley site factsheet
Slovenia Vipavski rob site factsheet
Sweden Hanveden-Hemfosa site factsheet
Sweden North-east Scania coastline and archipelago site factsheet
Ukraine Gorgany site factsheet
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest site factsheet
United Kingdom Breckland site factsheet
United Kingdom Cannock Chase site factsheet
United Kingdom Dorset Heaths and Forests site factsheet
United Kingdom Haldon Forest site factsheet
United Kingdom Laughton Forest site factsheet
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick site factsheet
United Kingdom New Forest site factsheet
United Kingdom Sherwood Forest site factsheet
United Kingdom Suffolk Sandlings site factsheet
United Kingdom Thames Basin Heaths site factsheet
United Kingdom Wealden Heaths site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - -  
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - -  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Lullula arborea. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Alaudidae (Larks)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 7,110,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment