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Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 8,080,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 8,080,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 7,300,000-14,000,000 breeding pairs, equating to 21,900,000-42,000,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 5-24% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 91,300,000-840,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Korea and < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population is estimated to be in decline owing to recorded regional declines in recent decades (del Hoyo et al. 2004). In Europe, trends since 1996 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.05), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant        
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant     Yes  
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Bhutan Vagrant Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Cameroon Vagrant Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Croatia Native Extant Yes      
Cyprus Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
Djibouti Vagrant Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Finland Vagrant Extant        
France Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Vagrant Extant        
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant        
Greece Native Extant     Yes Yes
Hungary Native Extant Yes      
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
India Native Extant Yes      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Iraq Native Extant     Yes Yes
Ireland Vagrant Extant        
Israel Native Extant Yes      
Italy Native Extant Yes      
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Vagrant Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes Yes
Libya Native Extant        
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant Yes      
Mauritania Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant Yes      
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Morocco Native Extant        
Myanmar Vagrant Extant        
Netherlands Vagrant Extant        
Niger Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Norway Vagrant Extant        
Oman Native Extant     Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant        
Poland Vagrant Extant        
Portugal Native Extant Yes      
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Romania Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Seychelles Vagrant Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant Yes      
Slovenia Vagrant Extant        
Somalia Native Extant        
South Korea Vagrant Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sudan Native Extant        
Sweden Vagrant Extant        
Switzerland Native Extant Yes      
Syria Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant Yes      
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Ukraine Native Extant Yes      
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Western Sahara Native Extant Yes      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bulgaria Belite Skali site factsheet
Bulgaria Kaliakra site factsheet
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair site factsheet
Bulgaria Rayanovtsi site factsheet
Bulgaria Sakar site factsheet
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets site factsheet
Bulgaria Zlatiata site factsheet
France Basse Vallée de la Durance site factsheet
France Cordon lagunaire de Sète à Agde site factsheet
France Crau site factsheet
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech site factsheet
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme site factsheet
France Etangs Narbonnais site factsheet
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban site factsheet
France Montagne de la Clape site factsheet
France Plateau de Valensole site factsheet
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale site factsheet
Greece Amvrakikos gulf site factsheet
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas site factsheet
Greece Evros delta site factsheet
Greece Kalamas delta site factsheet
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary site factsheet
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons site factsheet
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons site factsheet
Greece Thessaly plain site factsheet
Italy Central Campidano site factsheet
Italy Magredi of Pordenone site factsheet
Italy Murge site factsheet
Italy Sentina site factsheet
Italy Taro river site factsheet
Jordan Shaumari site factsheet
Portugal Castro Verde plains site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões site factsheet
Portugal Tejo estuary site factsheet
Portugal Upper River Tejo site factsheet
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi site factsheet
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu site factsheet
Romania Denis Tepe site factsheet
Romania Dobrogei gorge site factsheet
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova site factsheet
Romania Hagieni forest site factsheet
Romania Limanu - Herghelia site factsheet
Romania Stepa Casimcea site factsheet
Russia (European) Orenburgski Nature Reserve site factsheet
Spain Hoya de Guadix site factsheet
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Calandrella brachydactyla. Downloaded from on 21/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 21/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Alaudidae (Larks)
Species name author (Leisler, 1814)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 8,080,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment