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Greater Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydactyla

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 8,080,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 8,080,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 7,300,000-14,000,000 breeding pairs, equating to 21,900,000-42,000,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 5-24% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 91,300,000-840,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Korea and < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population is estimated to be in decline owing to recorded regional declines in recent decades (del Hoyo et al. 2004). In Europe, trends since 1996 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.05), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes   Yes
Albania Native Extant Yes    
Algeria Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Austria Native Extant     Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Bhutan Vagrant Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes    
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Cameroon Vagrant Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes    
Croatia Native Extant Yes    
Cyprus Native Extant Yes   Yes
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Djibouti Vagrant Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Finland Vagrant Extant      
France Native Extant Yes   Yes
Georgia Native Extant Yes    
Germany Vagrant Extant      
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant      
Greece Native Extant     Yes
Hungary Native Extant Yes    
Iceland Vagrant Extant      
India Native Extant Yes    
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant Yes   Yes
Iraq Native Extant     Yes
Ireland Vagrant Extant      
Israel Native Extant Yes    
Italy Native Extant Yes    
Japan Native Extant      
Jordan Native Extant Yes   Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Vagrant Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes
Libya Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Malta Native Extant Yes    
Mauritania Native Extant      
Moldova Native Extant Yes    
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant Yes    
Morocco Native Extant      
Myanmar Vagrant Extant      
Netherlands Vagrant Extant      
Niger Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant      
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Oman Native Extant     Yes
Pakistan Native Extant      
Poland Vagrant Extant      
Portugal Native Extant Yes    
Qatar Native Extant   Yes Yes
Romania Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant Yes    
Seychelles Vagrant Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant Yes    
Slovenia Vagrant Extant      
Somalia Native Extant      
South Korea Vagrant Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Switzerland Native Extant Yes    
Syria Native Extant Yes   Yes
Tajikistan Native Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Ukraine Native Extant Yes    
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    
Western Sahara Native Extant Yes    
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bulgaria Belite Skali site factsheet
Bulgaria Kaliakra site factsheet
Bulgaria Kamenski Bair site factsheet
Bulgaria Rayanovtsi site factsheet
Bulgaria Sakar site factsheet
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets site factsheet
Bulgaria Zlatiata site factsheet
France Basse Vallée de la Durance site factsheet
France Cordon lagunaire de Sète à Agde site factsheet
France Crau site factsheet
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech site factsheet
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme site factsheet
France Etangs Narbonnais site factsheet
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban site factsheet
France Montagne de la Clape site factsheet
France Plateau de Valensole site factsheet
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale site factsheet
Greece Amvrakikos gulf site factsheet
Greece Axios, Loudias, and Aliakmon estuaries site factsheet
Greece Evros delta site factsheet
Greece Kalamas estuary site factsheet
Greece Mesolongi and Aetoliko lagoons, and Acheloos and Evinos estuaries site factsheet
Greece Nestou delta and coastal lagoons site factsheet
Greece Porto Lagos, Lake Vistonis, and coastal lagoons (Lakes of Thrace) site factsheet
Greece Thessaly plain site factsheet
Jordan Shaumari site factsheet
Portugal Castro Verde plains site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões site factsheet
Portugal Tejo estuary site factsheet
Portugal Upper River Tejo site factsheet
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi site factsheet
Romania Allah Bair - Capidava site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu site factsheet
Romania Denis Tepe site factsheet
Romania Dobrogei gorge site factsheet
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova site factsheet
Romania Hagieni forest site factsheet
Romania Limanu - Herghelia site factsheet
Romania Stepa Casimcea site factsheet
Russia (European) Orenburgski Nature Reserve site factsheet
Spain Hoya de Guadix site factsheet
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Calandrella brachydactyla. Downloaded from on 11/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 11/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Alaudidae (Larks)
Species name author (Leisler, 1814)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 8,080,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species