email a friend
printable version
Calandra Lark Melanocorypha calandra

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 61.6 g


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,630,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6,490,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 10000000-24000000 breeding pairs, equating to 30000000-72000000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 61200000-288000000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.
Trend justification: The population is estimated to be in decline following a number of recorded regional declines in recent decades (del Hoyo et al. 2004), although in Europe, trends since 1996 have been stable, based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes    
Albania Native Extant Yes    
Algeria Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Austria Vagrant Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant      
Bahrain Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Belgium Vagrant Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes    
Bulgaria Native Extant     Yes
Croatia Native Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant      
Czech Republic Vagrant Extant      
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Finland Vagrant Extant      
France Native Extant      
Georgia Native Extant Yes    
Germany Vagrant Extant      
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Greece Native Extant     Yes
Hungary Vagrant Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant      
Iraq Native Extant      
Israel Native Extant Yes    
Italy Native Extant      
Jordan Native Extant     Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kuwait Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes
Libya Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant      
Moldova Native Extant      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes    
Morocco Native Extant      
Netherlands Vagrant Extant      
Norway Vagrant Extant      
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant      
Poland Vagrant Extant      
Portugal Native Extant      
Romania Native Extant      
Russia (Central Asian) Vagrant Extant      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Saudi Arabia Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Serbia Native Extant Yes    
Slovenia Native Extant      
Spain Native Extant      
Sweden Vagrant Extant      
Switzerland Vagrant Extant      
Syria Native Extant     Yes
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes    
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant      
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Ukraine Native Extant Yes    
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant   Yes  
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills site factsheet
Bulgaria Harmanliyska Reka site factsheet
Bulgaria Kaliakra site factsheet
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids site factsheet
Bulgaria Mesta Valley site factsheet
Bulgaria Radinchevo site factsheet
Bulgaria Sakar site factsheet
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain site factsheet
Bulgaria Western Strandzha site factsheet
Cyprus Koshi-Pallourokampos and Troulloi Plain site factsheet
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes site factsheet
Cyprus Mesaoria Plain site factsheet
Cyprus Mia Milia Sewage Treatment Plant site factsheet
France Crau site factsheet
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance site factsheet
France Plateau de Valensole site factsheet
Portugal Castro Marim site factsheet
Portugal Castro Verde plains site factsheet
Portugal Cuba site factsheet
Portugal Évora plains site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões site factsheet
Portugal Tejo estuary site factsheet
Portugal Upper River Tejo site factsheet
Portugal Vila Fernando site factsheet
Romania Aliman - Adamclisi site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu site factsheet
Romania Denis Tepe site factsheet
Romania Dobrogei gorge site factsheet
Romania Dunăre - Canarale - Hârşova site factsheet
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin) site factsheet
Romania Hagieni forest site factsheet
Romania Limanu - Herghelia site factsheet
Romania Stepa Casimcea site factsheet
Romania Stepa Saraiu - Horea site factsheet
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes site factsheet
Spain Hoya de Baza site factsheet
Spain Hoya de Guadix site factsheet
Spain Jaén countryside site factsheet
Spain La Serena site factsheet
Spain Lerida steppes site factsheet
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Grassland Temperate major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Melanocorypha calandra. Downloaded from on 20/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 20/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Alaudidae (Larks)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1766)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 5,630,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species