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LC
Spike-heeled Lark Chersomanes albofasciata

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
This species is found in central and south-west Angola, where it is sparse and local on the central plateau and common in the arid south-west; Namibia, where it is widespread and common; Botswana, where is is widespread but absent from the north-east; and South Africa, where it is widespread and often common on the Transvaal highveld, local in Natal, widespread and common to fairly common in Orange Free State, widespread in Cape Province, and particularly common in the Karoo, with isolated records from the Pietersburg plateau (Keith et al. 1992). An isolated population occurs in Tanzania near Kingerete, 30-50 km north of Arusha (Zimmerman et al. 1996).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but it is believed to be large as the species is described as common in at least parts of its range (Keith et al. 1992).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to the expansion of cultivation and plantations (del Hoyo et al. 2004).

Ecology
The species is found in a range of habitats from well-grazed high rainfall grasslands (Keith et al. 1992) and overgrazed, treeless plains (Zimmerman et al. 1996), to shrublands in the Karoo, lawns and sports fields, desert margins and gravel plains (Keith et al. 1992). It occurs in pairs or groups of up to 10 birds (more commonly three to five) (Keith et al. 1992). It feeds on ants, termites, beetles, other invertebrates and seeds (Stipagrostis grasses and forbs Monsonia umbellata) (Keith et al. 1992). It has been recorded breeding cooperatively (Keith et al. 1992). The nest is a cup of dry grass and rootlets, placed in a scrape in sandy soil at the base of a grass tuft or shrub, usually on a base of stones, earth or sticks; clutch size is 2-3. The breeding season varies with the region (Keith et al. 1992). Adults are preyed on by the Red-necked Falcon Falco chicquera (Keith et al. 1992).

References
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2004. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 9: Cotingas to Pipits and Wagtails. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Keith, S.; Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H. 1992. The birds of Africa vol. IV. Academic Press, London.

Zimmerman, D. A.; Turner, D. A.; Pearson, D. J. 1996. Birds of Kenya and northern Tanzania. Helm, London.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Fisher, S., Harding, M., Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Chersomanes albofasciata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Alaudidae (Larks)
Species name author (Lafresnaye, 1836)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,400,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change