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Rudd's Lark Heteromirafra ruddi

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable A3c;C2a(i) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 21,800 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1700-3300 poor Estimated 1998
Population trend Decreasing medium -
Number of subpopulations 3 - - -
Largest subpopulation 251-1000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.8 - - -
Population justification: Siegfried (1992) suggested a global population of 1,500-5,000 individuals. Estimates for the proposed Grassland Biosphere Reserve suggest that 2,500 individuals is a more realistic lower limit for this species. This range is roughly equivalent to 1,700-3,300 mature individuals, however the total may be significantly lower as no new populations have been found (D. Maphisa in litt. 2012)
Trend justification: Its absence has recently been noted at former strongholds, suggesting it is presently in decline (D. Maphisa in litt. 2007). The loss of the species's habitat over the next 11 years (three generations) could be rapid (30-50%) unless planned intervention takes place. Based on this, the population is projected to decline by 30-49% over the next three generations.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
South Africa Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
South Africa Alexpan site factsheet
South Africa Grasslands site factsheet
South Africa Matatiele Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Steenkampsberg site factsheet
South Africa Sterkfontein Dam Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Sterkfontein/Merinodal site factsheet
South Africa Voordeel Conservancy site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major resident
Altitude 1700 - 2200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations / Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) No decline Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Heteromirafra ruddi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Alaudidae (Larks)
Species name author (Grant, 1908)
Population size 1700-3300 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 21,800 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change