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Rufous-winged Illadopsis Illadopsis rufescens

Justification
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it is suspected to be experiencing a moderately rapid population decline owing to forest clearance and degradation. Any evidence that the species's population is in rapid decline might qualify it for uplisting to a higher threat category.

Taxonomic source(s)
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Synonym(s)
Trichastoma rufescens Collar and Andrew (1988)

Distribution and population
Illadopsis rufescens is restricted to the Upper Guinea Forests Endemic Bird Area of West Africa, ranging from Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Côte d'Ivoire to Ghana and western Togo (del Hoyo et al. 2007). It has also been recorded from Senegal and Benin (Dowsett and Forbes-Watson 1993), but doubt has been cast over these records (F. Dowsett-Lemaire in litt. 2007). It has been considered generally common, with a density of 4-8 pairs / km2 having been recorded in Liberia (Gatter 1997) and, in 1989, been thought likely to be quite common in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire (Gartshore 1989). Whilst it is still moderately common in Mt Peko National Park and in gallery forest in Mt Sangbe National Park (H. Rainey in litt. 2007), surveys in Western Region, Ghana, have found it to be absent from most small forest reserves (smaller than 100 km2) and to be present only in small numbers where it occurred (Holbech 1996), being uncommon in Boi-Tano Forest Reserve and rare in Krokosua Forest Reserve (H. Rainey in litt. 2007). Modern accounts describe the species as "generally uncommon to rare" (del Hoyo et al. 2007).


Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified: it was estimated to number 9,604 individuals in Gola Forest in 1989. The forest covers less than 5% of the species's range, and so the population can be preliminarily estimated to number at least 190,000 individuals. Given the considerable uncertainty associated with this estimate, it is best placed in the band 100,000-499,999 individuals.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and fragmentation (del Hoyo et al. 2007).

Ecology
This species is widespread in the forest zone, occurring in primary forest, mature secondary regrowth, coastal thickets and, less commonly, logged and disturbed forest (Gatter 1997, del Hoyo et al. 2007). It occurs at 760-1,220 m in Sierra Leone and 535-1,400 m in Liberia (del Hoyo et al. 2007). It forages on the ground and low down in the understorey (Gatter 1997) for beetles, grasshoppers, termites and other insects, as well as small snails and small amphibians. It appears to breed year-round (del Hoyo et al. 2007).

Threats
It is threatened throughout its range by forest clearance due to commercial logging and agricultural encroachment and, in Ghana, it may suffer severe reduction in numbers if logging intensifies (Holbech 1996).

Conservation Actions Underway
The species occurs in Taï National Park (Gartshore 1989), Mt Peko National Park, Mt Sangbe National Park and Boi-Tano and Krokosua forest reserves (H. Rainey in litt. 2007), at least. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to obtain a total population estimate. Survey areas where the species has been recorded in Benin and Senegal, and re-evaluate the records from these countries. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation across its range. Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status.

References
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2007. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 12: Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Liège, Belgium.

Gartshore, M. E. 1989. An avifaunal survey of Taï National Park, Ivory Coast. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Gatter, W. 1997. Birds of Liberia. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Holbech, L. H. 1996. Faunistic diversity and game production contra human activities in the Ghana high forest zone, with reference to the Western Region.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., O'Brien, A., Robertson, P., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Demey, R., Dowsett-Lemaire, F., Rainey, H.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Illadopsis rufescens. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Timaliidae (Babblers and parrotbills)
Species name author (Reichenow, 1878)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 267,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change