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Rufous-fronted Laughingthrush Garrulax rufifrons
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This species has been uplisted from Near Threatened following evidence that it is likely to be declining much more rapidly than previously thought. It is listed as Endangered because it is suspected to be undergoing a very rapid population decline, caused primarily by heavy trapping pressure, as well as habitat loss in some areas. Urgent investigation is needed to improve understanding of this species's status and develop effective conservation interventions.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
Garrulax rufifrons is restricted to the mountains of western and central Java, Indonesia. Formerly common within this range, it is now uncommon in many areas as a result of trapping for the cage-bird trade. The only reliable site now appears to be Gunung Gede-Pangrango, as it no longer occurs in many accessible areas where it was once common, such as Halimun-Salak National Park (J. Eaton in litt. 2013).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as uncommon (del Hoyo et al. 2007).

Trend justification
This species has become scarce throughout much of its range in recent years, primarily as a result of heavy trapping for the cage-bird trade. Although data are lacking on the precise magnitude of the population decline, the species is suspected to be undergoing a very rapid decline, given the weight of the perceived decrease in abundance and intense trapping pressure.

This species is found in broadleaved evergreen and montane forests at 900-2,400 m.

This species is heavily exploited as a cage-bird, which has rendered it uncommon in most of its range. Its forest habitats remain moderately secure due to the remote and rugged nature of the terrain, although some loss and degradation is likely to have occurred in lower areas. Additional potential threats are posed by the impacts of projected climate change and volcanic activity, such as on Gunung Merapi, where the species may occur (Yong Ding Li in litt. 2012, 2013).

Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted conservation actions are known for this species, although it has been recorded in protected areas.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor its presence in bird markets within the region, as well as population and habitat trends across the range. Campaign for the legal protection of this species and controls on rates of trapping. Conduct education and awareness-raising activities to discourage trapping. Encourage livelihood alternatives in selected communities to reduce trapping pressure. Test the feasibility of more ecotourism within the species's range, with increased community engagement.

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2007. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 12: Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Gilroy, J. & Taylor, J.

Eaton, J. & Yong, D.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Garrulax rufifrons. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 23/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Timaliidae (Babblers and parrotbills)
Species name author Lesson, 1831
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,800 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species