This species occurs in lowland evergreen forest in a region in which deforestation is occurring at a rapid rate. It is therefore likely to be undergoing a moderately rapid population decline, and should be monitored carefully. On this basis it is considered Near Threatened, but is not regarded as more threatened owing to its tolerance of some modified habitats.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Psilopogon rafflesii (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Megalaima.
Megalaima rafflesii (Lesson, 1839)
Distribution and population
Megalaima rafflesii is confined to the Sundaic lowlands of south Tenasserim, Myanmar, peninsular Thailand, Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia and Brunei (BirdLife International 2001).
The population size of this species has not been quantified; it is considered scarce to common throughout its range.
A moderately rapid population decline is suspected to be on-going as a result of continuing forest loss and degradation across the species's range.
This species occurs in primary lowland evergreen forest up to 800 m. It is also found in tall secondary forest, poor-quality Dipterocarp slope forest and occasionally in rubber plantations.
Rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid, owing partly to the escalation of illegal logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas. Forest fires have also had a damaging effect (particularly in 1997-1998). The magnitude of these threats may be allayed by this species's tolerance of secondary and slope forest, although further studies are required to determine whether this species can genuinely persist in these habitats in the absence of adjacent primary habitat.
Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted conservation actions are known for this species, although it occurs in a number of protected areas.
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct repeated surveys across the species's range to determine the magnitude of declines and rates of range contraction. Conduct ecological studies to determine precise habitat requirements, tolerance of secondary habitats and response to fragmentation. Campaign for the protection of remaining tracts of lowland forest throughout the species's range.
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 2002. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 7: Jacamars to Woodpeckers. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Psilopogon rafflesii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/07/2014.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
|Current IUCN Red List category||Near Threatened|
|Species name author||(Lesson, 1839)|
|Population size||Unknown mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||691,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|