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Rufous-throated White-eye Madanga ruficollis
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This montane passerine is known from just two or three locations, and it qualifies as Endangered on account of its very small range, which may be declining as a result of forest loss. Further surveys may reveal it to be more common and widespread, perhaps warranting a review of its threat status.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

13 cm. Small, drab, forest-dwelling, warbler-like bird. Grey head, rufous-orange throat. Olive-green upperparts, grey underparts. Yellowish-brown undertail-coverts. Black bill and legs. Similar spp. Male Cinnamon-chested Flycatcher Ficedula buruensis is much darker above and more extensively rufous on underparts. Voice Undocumented.

Distribution and population
Madanga ruficollis is endemic to the island of Buru in South Maluku, Indonesia, where it is known from four specimens collected prior to 1920, and recent records from localities in mountains in the west and centre of the island (BirdLife International 2001, Rheindt and Hutchinson 2007). Its total population size is entirely unknown. However, given that the area of habitat available is fairly extensive, at least several hundred birds, and very possibly several thousand, would be expected to survive. Nonetheless, its range is very small, and current evidence indicates that it is either highly elusive, very localised, or occurs at very low densities.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, based on the analysis by BirdLife International (2001) that the population numbers at least several hundred, and very possibly several thousands. This estimate equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
Information on the species's population status is lacking, but a negative slow to moderate trend is precautionarily suspected, as some habitat degradation is thought to be occurring within its range.

The birds seen in 1995 were following a mixed-species feeding flock in montane forest, and climbing up and down mossy tree-trunks in the manner of nuthatches Sitta spp. It has been recorded between 820 m and 1,750 m; however, it is suspected to also occur at higher elevations, and it is possible that the lower elevation of 820 m is erroneous, as the species appears to be strongly tied to montane forest (Rheindt and Hutchinson 2007, R. Hutchinson in litt. 2012). It is assumed to be resident, but may perhaps make local altitudinal movements.

This bird is primarily at risk owing to its highly restricted range and, based on current evidence, apparent natural scarcity. Thus, although montane forests on Buru are still largely undisturbed, even a small perturbation of its habitat might have serious consequences, and none of its habitat currently receives formal protection. Some habitat destruction is thought to be on-going as a result of logging and conversion to small-scale agriculture; however, montane forest is less threatened compared to that in lowland areas (R. Hutchinson in litt. 2012).

Conservation Actions Underway
One recent survey on the island accessed suitable habitat for the species. All known records come from a proposed protected area: Gunung Kelapatmada (M. Poulsen in litt. 2007). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct extensive surveys in hill and montane forest in the west and east of the island to establish its full distribution, population status and habitat preferences, and to identify the most important areas for its conservation. Following surveys determining most important areas for conservation of this and other Buru endemic species, gazette reserves around key sites. Support the establishment of the proposed Gunung Kelapatmada protected area.

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Rheindt, F. E.; Hutchinson, R. O. 2007. New island records and new elevational records of birds from South Maluku, Indonesia. Forktail 23: 158-161.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Click here for more information about the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE)

Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J.

Hutchinson, R., Poulsen, M.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Madanga ruficollis. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Zosteropidae (White-eyes)
Species name author Rothschild & Hartert, 1923
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,400 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species