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Fernando Po Speirops Speirops brunneus

Justification
This species is classified as Vulnerable on account of its very small range. Although it is apparently currently secure, it is inherently at risk, especially from any loss of its very restricted habitat.

Taxonomic source(s)
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Identification
12 cm. Small, all-brown, warbler-like bird. Darker brown upperparts and head, paler on belly with greyish throat. Greyish-blue bill and legs. Voice Long, trilling trrrrrrrruuuuu or rapid tric tric tric.

Distribution and population
Speirops brunneus is known only from Pico Basilé (formerly de Santa Isabel), on Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. It is possible that it could also occur on the nearby (much smaller) Caldera de Luba (Pérez del Val 1996). Surveys in the early 1990s found the species to be common within its range (Pérez del Val 1996).

Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals. This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The species's population is suspected to be stable because access to its habitat is restricted and no immediate threats are known.

Ecology
It is found on the higher slopes (above 1,900 m), where it inhabits lichen forest and montane heathland. It occurs in groups of four to five, searching for insects amongst the lower branches of Hypericum lanceolatum trees and also takes fruit and seeds (Pérez del Val 1996).

Threats
The main threat could be fires set by hunters, but no evidence of this was seen in 1996 (R. A. Cheke in litt. 1999). A visit to the area in 1996 confirmed that habitat at Pico Basilé remained intact (R. A. Cheke in litt. 1999). Reports up to 2005 indicate that the accelerated rates of deforestation occurring on the island had not affected Pico Basilé (R. Cheke in litt. 2007). Images of Caldera da Luba and the southern forests taken in 2005 do not indicate any encroachment in these areas (R. Cheke in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions Underway
Pico Basilé is a restricted area as the radio mast at the summit of the mountain has been designated a security zone (R. A. Cheke in litt. 1999). The Bioko Conservation Project has initiated regular research in the forests of the island and increased its international recognition (http://www.bioko.org/). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct a baseline survey to obtain a population estimate, map its range more accurately and check for its presence on Caldera de Luba. Monitor the species periodically to ascertain any population and/or range trend. Protect habitat on Caldera da Luba if the species is found there.

References
2011. Bioko Biodiversity Protection Program. Bioko Biodiversity Protection Program: http://www.bioko.org/index.php.

Collar, N. J.; Stuart, S. N. 1985. Threatened birds of Africa and related islands: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge, U.K.

Pérez del Val, J. 1996. Las aves de Bioko, Guinea Ecuatorial: guía de campo. Edilesa, Leon.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Pilgrim, J., Shutes, S., Symes, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Cheke, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Speirops brunneus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Zosteropidae (White-eyes)
Species name author Salvadori, 1903
Population size 6000-15000 mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 60 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species