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Streaked Bulbul Ixos malaccensis

Justification
This species is likely to be declining as a result of habitat loss across much of its range. These declines are likely to be only moderately rapid at present, as populations are known to persist in secondary and hill forests. As such, it is treated as Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
Ixos malaccensis occurs in the Sundaic lowlands, from south Tenasserim, Myanmar, peninsular Thailand, Singapore (vagrant), Sabah, Sarawak and peninsular Malaysia, Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia, and Brunei. It remains fairly common in suitable habitats.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as fairly common to common (del Hoyo et al. 2005).

Trend justification
Although this species is able to persist in secondary habitats, as well as hill forests, declines are still suspected to be occurring as a result of the wholesale clearance of forest habitats in many areas.

Ecology
This species occurs in mature broadleaved evergreen forest in lowlands and foothills, occasionally up to 1,200 m, but generally lower. It is also found in tall secondary forest, forest edge and peatswamp forest.

Threats
Rates of forest loss in the Sundaic lowlands have been extremely rapid, owing partly to the escalation of illegal logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas. Forest fires have also had a damaging effect (particularly in 1997-1998). The magnitude of these threats may be allayed by this species's tolerance of hill and secondary forest.

Conservation Actions Underway


Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct repeated surveys within the range to assess population trends and rates of habitat loss. Conduct ecological studies to improve understanding of its precise habitat requirements, tolerance of secondary habitats and response to fragmentation. Improve the management of existing protected areas within the species's range. Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2005. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 10: Cuckoo-shrikes to Thrushes. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Khwaja, N.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Ixos malaccensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls)
Species name author (Blyth, 1845)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 976,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species