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Zamboanga Bulbul Ixos rufigularis
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This species has a moderately small range, within which it is now scarce and probably in decline owing to habitat loss. It is therefore likely to have a moderately small population. It is currently considered Near Threatened, but further studies are urgently needed to clarify the magnitude of threats facing remaining populations.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
Ixos rufigularis is endemic to Mindanao, Philippines, where it is known from around Lake Lanao and the Zamboanga Peninsula, plus Basilan including Malamaui (Collar et al. 1999). Although previously described as common in forest and forest edge, recent searches have produced very few sightings, including an almost fruitless search in the Zamboango City watershed. This suggests that it is now uncommon within its restricted range. It appears to be restricted to primary forest or secondary forest with tall trees and is therefore likely to have declined (R. Hutchinson in litt. 2012).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as fairly uncommon (del Hoyo et al. 2005).

Trend justification
This species was historically described as common within its small range, but recent surveys suggest it is now scarce or uncommon. It is likely to have declined as a result of habitat loss and degradation.

This species occurs in forest and forest edge, and is apparently commonest in intact areas of primary forest.

Habitat destruction in the Philippines is occurring on a large scale, particularly in the lowlands, as a result of logging and forest clearance for agriculture.

Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted conservation actions are known for this species, although some of its habitat is protected.

Conservation Actions Proposed
There is an urgent need to conduct surveys within the species's range to assess population trends and rates of habitat loss. Conduct ecological studies to improve understanding of its precise habitat requirements, tolerance of secondary habitats and response to fragmentation. Campaign for the establishment of a protected area on the Zamboanga Peninsula, Mindanao.

Collar, N. J.; Mallari, N. A. D.; Tabaranza, B. R. J. 1999. Threatened birds of the Philippines: the Haribon Foundation/BirdLife International Red Data Book. Bookmark, Makati City.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2005. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 10: Cuckoo-shrikes to Thrushes. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J., Allinson, T

Hutchinson, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Ixos rufigularis. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls)
Species name author (Sharpe, 1877)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 22,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species