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Yellow-eared Bulbul Pycnonotus penicillatus

Justification
This species has a very small global range, and although it remains common in suitable habitats and can tolerate modified habitats, its distribution and population size are likely to have been negatively affected by habitat loss and degradation. However, its population is not regarded as severely fragmented or restricted to only a few locations, thus it is considered Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
Pycnonotus penicillatus is an endemic resident in the wet zone highlands of Sri Lanka, where it is common to abundant in suitable habitats (BirdLife International 2001).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as abundant in the central provinces of Sri Lanka (del Hoyo et al. 2005).

Trend justification
A slow population decline is likely to be occurring as a result of habitat loss in some parts of the species's range.

Ecology
This species occurs in forest and nearby gardens, at middle and higher elevations, generally 900-2000 m.

Threats
Forest on Sri Lanka has suffered rapid degradation and fragmentation in the past decades through excessive gathering of fuelwood, clearance for permanent agriculture, shifting cultivation, fire, urbanisation and logging. It is feared that habitat loss will continue in the hills and the status of this species therefore requires monitoring.

Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted conservation actions are known for this species.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct repeated surveys within the species's range to assess population trends and rates of habitat loss. Conduct ecological studies to improve understanding of its precise habitat requirements, tolerance of secondary habitats and response to fragmentation. Effectively protect significant areas of suitable forest at key sites, in both strictly protected areas and community-led multiple use areas.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2005. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 10: Cuckoo-shrikes to Thrushes. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pycnonotus penicillatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Yellow-eared bulbul (Pycnonotus penicillatus) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls)
Species name author Blyth, 1851
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,900 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species