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Yellow-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus xantholaemus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered  
Vulnerable  

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Vulnerable
2012 Vulnerable
2008 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 356,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 poor Estimated 0
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 51-250 - - -
Population justification: Although this species has a large EOO (210,000 km2), it is very patchily distributed. Surveys of 18 sites showed it to be common in intact suitable habitat, but this was 'very limited'. Analysis of the detailed account in BirdLife International (2001) suggests that the total population may well be below 10,000 individuals, so it is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals here. This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.
Trend justification: Recent surveys of 18 sites found that the species had disappeared from six historical locations. Habitat loss is occurring throughout its fragmented range, suggesting that rapid population declines are likely to be on-going. It is thought to have been significantly more abundant in the past, particularly in the Western Ghats (Subramanya et al. 2006).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
India Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
India Adichunchunagiri Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Bandipur National Park site factsheet
India Bannerghatta National Park site factsheet
India Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Wildlife Sanctuary and Hills site factsheet
India Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Hampi and Daroji Bear Sanctuary site factsheet
India Horsley Hills site factsheet
India Jogimatti Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Kaundinya Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Melkote Temple Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Mudumalai National Park site factsheet
India Nandi Hills site factsheet
India Rajiv Ghandi Wildlife Sanctuary (Nagarjunasagar - Srisailam Tiger Reserve) site factsheet
India Ramanagara Reserve Forest site factsheet
India Sri Penusila Narasimha Wildlife Sanctuary site factsheet
India Sri Venkateswara Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Altitude 300 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Causing/Could cause fluct Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pycnonotus xantholaemus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls)
Species name author (Jerdon, 1845)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 356,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species