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Spot-necked Bulbul Pycnonotus tympanistrigus

Justification
This species is listed as Near Threatened as, although it remains widespread and fairly common within its range, it is likely to be declining moderately rapidly in line with rapid deforestation rates.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
Pycnonotus tympanistrigus is restricted to Sumatra, Indonesia (BirdLife International 2001). In the early 1990s, it was known by few records and appeared to be very local, but it is now known to be relatively common and widespread, albeit still declining because of habitat loss.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as occurring widely in areas of remaining forest in the Barisan range (del Hoyo et al. 2005).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to be in moderately rapid decline as a result of habitat loss and degradation in its lower altitudinal range.

Ecology
This species inhabits hill and lower montane forest at 600-1,400 m.

Threats
This species is at risk from deforestation in its lower elevation range, as most of its populations occupy areas below 900 m. In the period 1985-1997, Sumatra lost c.29% of its forest cover (Holmes 2002).

Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted conservation actions are known for this species, although some of its habitat is protected.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct repeated surveys within the species's range to determine its current distribution and abundance, as well as assess population trends and rates of habitat loss. Conduct ecological studies to improve understanding of its precise habitat requirements, tolerance of secondary habitats and response to fragmentation. Effectively protect significant areas of suitable forest at key sites, in both strictly protected areas and community-led multiple use areas.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2005. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 10: Cuckoo-shrikes to Thrushes. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Holmes, D. 2002. The Predicted Extinction of Lowland Forests in Indonesia. In: Wikramanayake, E., Dinerstein, E., Loucks, C. J., Olson, D. M., Morrison, J., Lamoreux, J., McKnight, M. and Hedao, P. (eds), Terrestrial Ecoregions of the Indo-Pacific: A Conservation Assessment, pp. 7-13. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pycnonotus tympanistrigus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Pycnonotidae (Bulbuls)
Species name author (Müller, 1835)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 97,200 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species