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Guayaquil Woodpecker Campephilus gayaquilensis

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it is suspected to be declining moderately rapidly owing to habitat loss.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Distribution and population
Campephilus gayaquilensis is restricted to the west slope of the Andes and adjacent lowlands, from south-west Colombia (Cauca) through west Ecuador to north-west Peru (south to Cajamarca) (Winkler et al. 1995). It is locally relatively common, but appears uncommon to rare over much of its range (Parker and Carr 1992, Pople et al. 1997, Jiggins et al. 1999, Clements and Shany 2001), with populations becoming highly fragmented owing to habitat destruction.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996).

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss.

Ecology
It inhabits dry deciduous and humid forests, as well as tall second growth and mangroves (Hilty and Brown 1986), from sea-level to 800 m, occasionally higher in the south (Winkler et al. 1995), with records to 1,800 m (Jiggins et al. 1999).

Threats
Forest in this region is being cleared for agriculture, and goats and cattle graze the understorey of much of the remaining forest, preventing regeneration. Most remaining forest in the region is highly fragmented, and it seems unlikely that small areas (e.g. Jauneche Biological Reserve Station in Ecuador) can support viable populations of this species, which occurs naturally at low densities (Parker and Carr 1992). It appears inevitable that such populations will ultimately become extinct (Parker and Carr 1992).

Conservation Actions Underway
In Ecuador populations occur in Machalilla National Park, Tinalandia Natural Reserve and Cerro Blanco Protected Forest. It is present in Tumbes Natural Reserve and Cerros de Amotape National Park, Peru.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Effectively protect and manage protected areas where the species occurs. Study its ecology and the ability of small populations to persist in degraded habitats and small, fragmented patches.

References
Clements, J. F.; Shany, N. 2001. A field guide to the birds of Peru. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Hilty, S. L.; Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Jiggins, C. D.; Andrade, P.; Cueva, E.; Dixon, S.; Isherwood, I.; Willis, J. 1999. The conservation of three forests in south west Ecuador: Reserva Natural El Tundo, Hacienda Jujal and Tambo Negro.

Parker, T. A.; Carr, J. L. 1992. Status of forest remnants in the Cordillera de la Costa and adjacent areas of southwestern Ecuador (Rapid Assessment Program). Conservation International, Washington, D.C.

Parker, T. A.; Schulenberg, T. S.; Kessler, M.; Wust, W. H. 1995. Natural history and conservation of the endemic avifauna in north-west Peru. Bird Conservation International 5: 201-231.

Pople, R. G.; Burfield, I. J.; Clay, R. P.; Cope, D. R.; Kennedy, C. P.; López Lanús, B.; Reyes, J.; Warren, B.; Yagual, E. 1997. Bird surveys and conservation status of three sites in western Ecuador: final report of Project Ortalis '96. CSB Publications, Cambridge, UK.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Winkler, H.; Christie, D. A.; Nurney, D. 1995. Woodpeckers: a guide to the woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Campephilus gayaquilensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)
Species name author (Lesson, 1845)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 125,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species