email a friend
printable version
LC
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass 20.36 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 43,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 43,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.9 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.190,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs and > c.1,000 individuals on migration in China; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, > c.10,000 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs and > c.1,000 individuals on migration in Korea; c.10,000-1 million breeding pairs, > c.1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). In Europe, trends since 1980 have been stable, based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes    
Albania Native Extant Yes    
Algeria Native Extant      
Andorra Native Extant Yes    
Angola Native Extant      
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant      
Antarctica Vagrant Extant      
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant      
Argentina Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Australia Native Extant      
Austria Native Extant Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes    
Bahamas Native Extant      
Bahrain Native Extant Yes   Yes
Bangladesh Native Extant      
Barbados Native Extant      
Belarus Native Extant Yes    
Belgium Native Extant Yes    
Belize Native Extant   Yes Yes
Benin Native Extant      
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant      
Bhutan Native Extant Yes    
Bolivia Native Extant      
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes    
Botswana Native Extant      
Brazil Native Extant      
British Indian Ocean Territory Native Extant      
Brunei Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes
Burkina Faso Native Extant      
Burundi Native Extant      
Cambodia Native Extant      
Cameroon Native Extant      
Canada Native Extant     Yes
Cape Verde Native Extant      
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Central African Republic Native Extant      
Chad Native Extant      
Chile Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes    
Christmas Island (to Australia) Native Extant      
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) Vagrant Extant      
Colombia Native Extant      
Comoros Native Extant      
Congo Native Extant      
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant      
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes  
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant Yes    
Cuba Native Extant      
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes    
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes
Djibouti Native Extant      
Dominica Native Extant      
Dominican Republic Native Extant      
Ecuador Native Extant      
Egypt Native Extant      
El Salvador Native Extant      
Equatorial Guinea Native Extant      
Eritrea Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant Yes    
Ethiopia Native Extant      
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes    
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes
France Native Extant Yes   Yes
French Guiana Native Extant      
Gabon Native Extant      
Gambia Native Extant      
Georgia Native Extant Yes    
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes
Ghana Native Extant      
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant Yes    
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Grenada Native Extant      
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant     Yes
Guam (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Guatemala Native Extant      
Guinea Native Extant      
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant      
Guyana Native Extant      
Haiti Native Extant      
Honduras Native Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant Yes    
Iceland Native Extant Yes    
India Native Extant Yes    
Indonesia Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant     Yes
Iraq Native Extant Yes   Yes
Ireland Native Extant Yes    
Israel Native Extant Yes    
Italy Native Extant     Yes
Jamaica Native Extant   Yes  
Japan Native Extant Yes    
Jordan Native Extant     Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Laos Native Extant      
Latvia Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes
Lesotho Native Extant      
Liberia Native Extant      
Libya Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant Yes    
Lithuania Native Extant Yes    
Luxembourg Native Extant Yes    
Macao (China) Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes    
Madagascar Native Extant      
Malawi Native Extant      
Malaysia Native Extant      
Maldives Native Extant      
Mali Native Extant      
Malta Native Extant Yes    
Marshall Islands Native Extant   Yes  
Martinique (to France) Native Extant      
Mauritania Native Extant      
Mayotte (to France) Native Extant      
Mexico Native Extant      
Micronesia, Federated States of Native Extant   Yes  
Moldova Native Extant Yes    
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant Yes    
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Mozambique Native Extant      
Myanmar Native Extant      
Namibia Native Extant      
Nepal Native Extant Yes    
Netherlands Native Extant Yes    
Nicaragua Native Extant     Yes
Niger Native Extant      
Nigeria Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant Yes    
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Native Extant Yes    
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes
Pakistan Native Extant Yes    
Palau Native Extant   Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes
Panama Native Extant      
Paraguay Native Extant      
Peru Native Extant      
Philippines Native Extant      
Poland Native Extant Yes    
Portugal Native Extant      
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant      
Qatar Native Extant     Yes
Romania Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Rwanda Native Extant      
São Tomé e Príncipe Native Extant      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes Yes
Senegal Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant Yes    
Seychelles Native Extant      
Sierra Leone Native Extant      
Singapore Native Extant      
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant Yes    
Slovenia Native Extant Yes   Yes
Somalia Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant Yes    
South Sudan Native Extant     Yes
Spain Native Extant     Yes
Sri Lanka Native Extant      
St Helena (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant      
St Lucia Native Extant      
St Martin (to France) Native Extant     Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant Yes   Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant      
Suriname Native Extant      
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant      
Swaziland Native Extant      
Sweden Native Extant Yes    
Switzerland Native Extant Yes    
Syria Native Extant     Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant Yes    
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes    
Tanzania Native Extant      
Thailand Native Extant      
Timor-Leste Native Extant   Yes Yes
Togo Native Extant      
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant      
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant Yes    
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant      
Uganda Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant Yes    
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Native Extant     Yes
Uruguay Native Extant   Yes  
USA Native Extant Yes    
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    
Venezuela Native Extant      
Vietnam Native Extant Yes    
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant   Yes  
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes  
Western Sahara Native Extant      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes
Zambia Native Extant      
Zimbabwe Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Botswana Okavango Delta site factsheet
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region) site factsheet
Nigeria Ebok-Kabaken site factsheet
South Africa La Mercy and Mount Moreland site factsheet
Spain Mountains of Barcelona site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Hirundo rustica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Hirundinidae (Swallows and martins)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 43,400,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species