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LC
Eurasian Crag-martin Hirundo rupestris

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 9,090,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 4,500,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 120,000-370,000 breeding pairs, equating to 360,000-1,110,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 720,000-4,440,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in China has been estimated at c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2011 was stable, based on provisional data for 27 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes      
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant        
Andorra Native Extant Yes      
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant Yes      
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes      
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes  
Belgium Vagrant Extant        
Bhutan Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes      
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Croatia Native Extant       Yes
Cyprus Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Vagrant Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Finland Vagrant Extant        
France Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gambia Vagrant Extant        
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant Yes      
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Greece Native Extant     Yes Yes
India Native Extant       Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant Yes      
Iraq Native Extant     Yes Yes
Israel Native Extant Yes      
Italy Native Extant       Yes
Jordan Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant     Yes Yes
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant Yes      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Monaco Native Extant       Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Morocco Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant Yes      
Nepal Native Extant Yes      
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant       Yes
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Qatar Native Extant     Yes  
Romania Native Extant Yes      
Russia Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes  
Senegal Native Extant        
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Slovenia Native Extant Yes      
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sudan Native Extant     Yes  
Switzerland Native Extant Yes      
Syria Native Extant       Yes
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
United Arab Emirates Native Extant     Yes  
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 4500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Hirundo rupestris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Hirundinidae (Swallows and martins)
Species name author Scopoli, 1769
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 9,090,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species