email a friend
printable version
LC
Sand Martin Riparia riparia

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 28,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 28,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.50,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004), while national population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in China; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and < c.50 wintering individuals in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia and (for the subspecies diluta) c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in China and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant Yes      
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant        
Angola Native Extant        
Anguilla (to UK) Native Extant        
Antigua and Barbuda Native Extant        
Argentina Native Extant        
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Austria Native Extant Yes      
Azerbaijan Native Extant Yes      
Bahamas Native Extant        
Bahrain Native Extant     Yes  
Bangladesh Native Extant        
Barbados Native Extant        
Belarus Native Extant Yes      
Belgium Native Extant Yes      
Belize Native Extant   Yes    
Benin Native Extant        
Bermuda (to UK) Native Extant        
Bhutan Native Extant        
Bolivia Native Extant        
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Botswana Native Extant        
Brazil Native Extant        
Brunei Vagrant Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Burkina Faso Native Extant        
Burundi Native Extant        
Cambodia Native Extant        
Cameroon Native Extant        
Canada Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Cape Verde Native Extant        
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Central African Republic Native Extant        
Chad Native Extant        
Chile Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Colombia Native Extant        
Comoros Vagrant Extant        
Congo Native Extant        
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant        
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes    
Côte d'Ivoire Native Extant        
Croatia Native Extant Yes      
Cuba Native Extant        
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Cyprus Native Extant        
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes      
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Djibouti Native Extant        
Dominica Native Extant        
Dominican Republic Native Extant        
Ecuador Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
El Salvador Native Extant        
Eritrea Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant Yes      
Ethiopia Native Extant        
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Vagrant Extant        
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Finland Native Extant Yes   Yes  
France Native Extant Yes   Yes  
French Guiana Native Extant        
Gabon Native Extant        
Gambia Native Extant        
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Ghana Native Extant        
Greece Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Guadeloupe (to France) Native Extant     Yes  
Guatemala Native Extant        
Guinea Native Extant        
Guinea-Bissau Native Extant        
Guyana Native Extant        
Haiti Native Extant        
Honduras Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant Yes      
India Native Extant Yes      
Indonesia Vagrant Extant        
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Iraq Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Ireland Native Extant Yes      
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Jamaica Native Extant        
Japan Native Extant Yes      
Jordan Native Extant     Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Native Extant        
Kuwait Native Extant     Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Laos Native Extant        
Latvia Native Extant Yes      
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Lesotho Vagrant Extant        
Liberia Native Extant        
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Native Extant Yes      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant Yes      
Madagascar Native Extant        
Malawi Native Extant        
Malaysia Native Extant        
Maldives Native Extant        
Mali Native Extant        
Malta Native Extant        
Martinique (to France) Native Extant        
Mauritania Native Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant Yes      
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Montserrat (to UK) Native Extant        
Morocco Native Extant        
Mozambique Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant        
Namibia Native Extant        
Nepal Native Extant Yes      
Netherlands Native Extant Yes      
Nicaragua Native Extant     Yes  
Niger Native Extant        
Nigeria Native Extant        
North Korea Native Extant        
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Oman Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Pakistan Native Extant Yes      
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant     Yes  
Panama Native Extant        
Paraguay Native Extant        
Peru Native Extant        
Philippines Native Extant        
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Native Extant Yes      
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Qatar Native Extant     Yes  
Romania Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Rwanda Native Extant        
Saudi Arabia Native Extant     Yes  
Senegal Native Extant   Yes    
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Seychelles Vagrant Extant        
Sierra Leone Native Extant        
Singapore Native Extant        
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant Yes      
Slovenia Native Extant Yes      
Somalia Native Extant        
South Africa Native Extant        
South Korea Native Extant        
South Sudan Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant Yes      
Sri Lanka Native Extant        
St Kitts and Nevis Native Extant        
St Lucia Native Extant        
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
St Vincent and the Grenadines Native Extant        
Sudan Native Extant        
Suriname Native Extant        
Swaziland Native Extant        
Sweden Native Extant Yes      
Switzerland Native Extant Yes      
Syria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant        
Tanzania Native Extant        
Thailand Native Extant        
Togo Native Extant        
Trinidad and Tobago Native Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant Yes      
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Uganda Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant Yes   Yes  
United Arab Emirates Native Extant   Yes Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant Yes      
Uruguay Native Extant   Yes    
USA Native Extant Yes      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Venezuela Native Extant        
Vietnam Native Extant        
Virgin Islands (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Virgin Islands (to USA) Native Extant   Yes    
Western Sahara Native Extant        
Yemen Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Zambia Native Extant        
Zimbabwe Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Belarus Dniepr floodplain Lojeŭ-Žary site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava site factsheet
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region) site factsheet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests site factsheet
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau site factsheet
Hungary Upper Tisza site factsheet
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley site factsheet
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya) site factsheet
Russia (European) Valley of Zhizdra river site factsheet
Senegal Djoudj wetlands site factsheet
Serbia Danube loess bluffs site factsheet
Serbia Donje Podrinje site factsheet
Serbia Gornje Pomoravlje site factsheet
Serbia Labudovo okno site factsheet
Serbia Titelski breg site factsheet
Ukraine Izyums'ka Luka forest site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 4500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Riparia riparia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Hirundinidae (Swallows and martins)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 28,900,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species