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Bahama Swallow Tachycineta cyaneoviridis

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered B1ab(iii,v);C2a(i,ii) 
Vulnerable C2a(ii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Endangered
2012 Endangered
2009 Endangered
2008 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass 17.5 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 8,100 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 13,300 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000-2499 poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1000-2500 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.1 - - -
Population justification: Smith and Smith (1989) previously estimated a global population of 2,400 pairs, i.e. 4,800 mature individuals. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the population has declined substantially since then and available survey data suggests the species occurs at low densities, even in apparently suitable habitat; consequently we cautiously assume a population of 1,000-2,499 mature individuals. This equates to 1,500-3,749 individuals in total, rounded here to 1,500-4,000 individuals.
Trend justification: Frequency of encounters with this species appear to have declined substantially in recent years in several parts of its range, though no empirical evidence is available to support this. It is presumed to have declined in line with modest habitat loss and degradation, plus pressure from invasive species. Planned housing developments could eliminate 8% of remaining breeding habitat (Allen 1996), and an increase in hurricane frequency owing to climate change may further degrade remnant habitats in the future.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Bahamas Native Extant Yes      
Cuba Native Extant   Yes    
USA Native Extant   Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Bahamas Harrold and Wilson Ponds National Park site factsheet
Bahamas Lucayan National Park site factsheet
Bahamas Red Bays site factsheet
Bahamas San Andros Pond site factsheet
Bahamas Stafford Creek to Andros Town site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Competition
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Supression in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Tachycineta cyaneoviridis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Hirundinidae (Swallows and martins)
Species name author (Bryant, 1859)
Population size 1000-2499 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 8,100 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species