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White-fronted Tit Parus semilarvatus

Justification
This apparently uncommon and poorly known species is likely to be declining moderately rapidly in line with rates of deforestation across its range. It is considered Near Threatened, and should be monitored carefully for future changes in the rate of decline.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Taxonomic note
The BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group is aware that phylogenetic analyses have been published which have proposed generic rearrangements which may affect this species, but prefers to wait until work by other taxonomists reveals how these changes affect the entire groups involved.

Distribution and population
Parus semilarvatus is endemic to the Philippines, where it occurs on Luzon (race snowi in the northern Sierra Madre, nominate semilarvatus in the central and southern Sierra Madre and a few other sites to the south and west) and Mindanao (race nehrkorni, known from some eight localities) (Collar et al. 1999). It is generally characterised as rare and local, although it is moderately common in the Sierra Madre.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as generally rare or uncommon, although locally common in the Sierra Madre, Luzon (del Hoyo et al. 2007).

Trend justification
Moderately rapid declines in this species's population are likely to be occurring in line with rapid and on-going habitat loss throughout its range.

Ecology
This species inhabits primary forest, edge and secondary growth in lowlands and hills, up to around 1,150 m.

Threats
The rapid and large-scale destruction of forests in recent years in the Philippines has undoubtedly reduced the area of available habitat for this species.

Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted conservation actions are known for this species, although some of its habitat is protected.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct repeated surveys within the species's range to determine its current distribution and abundance, as well as assess population trends and rates of habitat loss. Conduct ecological studies to improve understanding of its precise habitat requirements, tolerance of secondary habitats and response to fragmentation. Effectively protect significant areas of suitable habitat at key sites, in both strictly protected areas and community-led multiple use areas.

References
Collar, N. J.; Mallari, N. A. D.; Tabaranza, B. R. J. 1999. Threatened birds of the Philippines: the Haribon Foundation/BirdLife International Red Data Book. Bookmark, Makati City.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2007. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 12: Picathartes to Tits and Chickadees. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Parus semilarvatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Paridae (Tits and chickadees)
Species name author (Salvadori, 1865)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 54,800 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species