This species is classified as Critically Endangered because it has a tiny population. Numbers fluctuate owing to extreme weather, and in 2008 the population increased to be above the Critically Endangered threshold. If the population remains at this level for more than five years, or if reintroduction efforts prove successful, the species may be downlisted in the future.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
The genus Nesomimus has been subsumed into the genus Mimus following SACC (2006).
Nesomimus trifasciatus BirdLife International (2004)
Distribution and population
25 cm. Largish, brown passerine. Dark brownish-grey upperparts. Whitish underparts with conspicuous dark patches on sides of breast. Long, graduated tail with pale tips. Longish, curved beak. Red-brown eyes. Voice Strident call. Long, melodious song. Does not mimic other birds.
This species survives in low numbers on Champion (0.1 km2
) and Gardner-by-Floreana (0.8 km2
) islets in the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador
(Grant et al.
2000). It became extinct on the much larger Floreana (173 km2
) between 1868 and 1880 (Curry 1986, Steadman 1986)
. In 1966, the population was estimated to be no more than 150 birds (Harris 1968)
. Between 1980 and 1991, annual counts showed that there were 8-12 (average 10) territories on Champion, with 24-53 birds in total (Grant et al.
2000). On the same island between 2003 and 2008, numbers of birds varied from 20-52, but overall there was a downward population trend with 12 adults left in 2006 (Charles Darwin Foundation 2007b, Jiménez-Uzcátegui et al.
2011). A similar trend was noted on Gardner-by-Floreana during the same period, with the number of birds on that island varying between 65 and 179, and the number of adults in 2007 falling to 29 (Charles Darwin Foundation 2007b, Jiménez-Uzcátegui 2007, Jiménez-Uzcátegui et al.
. The population recovered in 2008 due to good weather conditions and may have reached record numbers for the last decade, however such population highs are likely only to be temporary as the islands cannot support such numbers and the populations are still extremely prone to climate-induced fluctuations (Hoeck 2009, Charles Darwin Foundation in litt.
2009, D. Wiedenfeld in litt.
). A population viability analysis of the Champion population suggested that there is less than a 50% chance of the bird persisting on the island for another 100 years. Population justification
Between 2003 and 2008, the population on Champion Island numbered 20-52 indviduals, with 65-179 on Gardner-by-Floreana. Both populations reached lows in 2007 following very bad weather conditions in 2006, with a total population of just 46 mature individuals remaining. Numbers then recovered in 2008 due to good, wet weather conditions (D. Wiedenfeld in litt.
2010) and in 2012 142 birds were counted (Ortis-Catedral 2012c). The total population was estimated to be 756, based on bird counts in 2012 (Charles Darwin Foundation 2013). However, given that the population undergoes major fluctuations, a population band of fewer than 50 mature individuals is precautionarily retained.Trend justification
The population on both islands declined between 2003 and 2007, with just 48 adults remaining in 2007. Wet weather conditions in 2008 caused the population to rebound (Hoeck, 2009, D. Wiedenfeld in litt.
2010), indicating the population is fluctuating. The increased frequency of dry years could mean a decreasing in the future, however this may be mitigated by the successful reintroduction of the species to Floreana Island.Ecology
It inhabits the large cactus Opuntia megasperma
and other stands of vegetation, including Parkinsonia
. It feeds mostly on terrestrial insects, but also takes arboreal insects, fruit, nectar, pollen, centipedes, crabs, lizards and regurgitated food of boobies Sula
spp. It is a cooperative breeder, with a variable mating system (Curry and Grant 1991)
. A recent study found that the nectar and pollen of Opuntia megasperma
is an important food source and nestlings were principally fed Lepidopteran caterpillars (Ortiz-Catedral 2014).Threats
Extinction on Floreana was probably caused by the depredations of introduced Black Rats (Rattus rattus)
cats and feral dogs, with introduced goats causing habitat loss (Harris 1973, Curry 1986, Grant et al.
2000). Higher adult mortality occurs in the unusually dry La Niña years (Grant et al.
; dry years are increasing in frequency, and this is thought to be driving fluctuations in the population size (as seen in 2007 and 2008) which leave the species prone to extinction (D. Wiedenfeld in litt.
. The Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani
) is known to predate other bird species on the archipelago and has been seen on Champion and Gardner-by-Floreana (G. Jiménez-Uzcátegui in litt.
. Increased mortality on Champion during the 1982-1983 El Niño event is thought to have been the result of avian pox virus (Grant et al.
, and the invasive parasite (Philornis downsi
) has been recorded (Wiedenfeld and Jimenez-Uzcategui 2008)
. Transmission of diseases from domestic chickens could also pose a threat (Deem et al.
2012). There are black rats present on nearby islets whose accidental introduction to either of the breeding islands poses an ever present threat (G. Jiménez-Uzcátegui in litt.
. The loss of immigration from the now extinct Floreana population has raised concerns for the long-term survival of the two remaining populations, as they are believed to have lost a significant amount of genetic diversity (Grant et al.
Hoeck et al.
2009) although there appears to be no link between inbreeding and immunocompetence within the species (Hoeck and Keller 2012).Conservation and Research Actions Underway
A 10-year action plan was developed in 2007, with plans to take active measures to safeguard existing populations, and to create suitable conditions for reintroduction to Floreana (Charles Darwin Foundation 2007b, G. Jiménez-Uzcátegui in litt.
2007, Anon. 2008a)
. Un authorised access to both the islands where the species is present is not permitted and there are stringent quarantine measures in place for field gear and researchers (Charles Darwin Foundation 2013). A ringing study is on-going to determine survival rates of the species; another study aims to assess the impacts of the parasite Philornis downsi
on the mockingbird population (Ortis-Catedral 2012). The reintroduction plan is supported by an emergency plan, to enable rapid response to critical downward population trends (Anon. 2008b)
, the Introduced Rodent Eradication Program initiated in 2007 and the initiation of Project Floreana, aimed at the restoration of the island (Anon. 2008a)
. The Galápagos National Park was gazetted in 1959, and includes almost all the land area of the islands. In 1979, the islands were declared a World Heritage Site (Jackson 1985)
The Charles Darwin Foundation is plans to reintroduce the species to Floreana, however no translocation occurred in 2010 as an El Niño event was expected which would have made rat and cat control on the island very difficult (P. Hoeck in litt.
2010, G. Jiménez-Uzcátegui in litt.
. In 2012 plans were made to establish a rat- and cat-proof perimeter around Punta Cormorant, a 51 ha peninsula with lowland vegetation on the east side of Floreana Island, either through natural recolonisation from Champion (c.4 km away) or through translocations (Ortis-Catedral 2012b,c,d). However due to the likely impacts of poisoned bait on the mockingbirds it has been decided that a translocation should only take place once Floreana has been fully eradicated of rats and cats (Ortiz-Catedral 2013). Plans have been developed to remove rats from the island and is scheduled for 2014 (Nicholls 2013). A week-long education campaign took place on Floreana in July 2012 and included events focused on the species (Ortis-Catedral 2012c). In addition, in 2014, children at a local school performed a play about the daily lives of mockingbirds and the importance of keeping Champion and Gardner free of invasive species (Ortiz-Catedral et al.
2014).Conservation and Research Actions Proposed
Monitor populations and environmental conditions on both islands, preferably annually (Grant et al.
. Minimise the risk of chance introductions of predators and disease. Support the establishment of captive-breeding populations and reintroduce to Floreana if eradication of rats, cats, anis, pigs, goats and donkeys is successful. Investigate possibility of reintroduction to other islets, or areas of Floreana, where black rats
and cats are absent (G. Jiménez-Uzcátegui in litt.
2012). As Opuntia megasperma
appears to be an important food source during the breeding season, it is important to both establish if it is key for breeding and consider a supplementary feeding programme for future reintroductions (Ortiz-Catedral 2014). In addition improved biosecurity measures should be implemented and mockingbirds should only be reintroduced in areas far from poultry and humans (Deem et al.
Related state of the world's birds case studies
Anon. 2008. Emergency plan for the Floreana Mockingbird: final report.
Anon. 2008. The reintroduction of the Floreana Mockingbird to its island of origin: Final Report.
Charles Darwin Foundation. 2007. Charles Darwin Foundation Research Station factsheet: Floreana Mockingbird Nesomimus trifasciatus. Available at: #http://www.darwinfoundation.org/files/species/pdf/flor-mock-en.pdf#.
Charles Darwin Foundation. 2007. Experts decide how to send the Floreana Mockingbird home. Available at: #http://www.darwinfoundation.org/en/newsroom/news-releases/2007-04-05_floreana_mockingbird#.
Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Action Plan to Save the Floreana Mockingbird of Galapagos.
Charles Darwin Foundation. 2013. Reintroduction of the Floreana Mockingbird Mimus trifasciatus. Charles Darwin Foundation.
Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Curry, R. L. 1986. Whatever happened to the Floreana Mockingbird? Notícias de Galápagos 43: 13-15.
Curry, R. L.; Grant, P. R. 1991. Galápagos mockingbirds: territorial cooperative breeding in a climatically variable environment. In: Stacey, P.B.; Koenig, W.D. (ed.), Cooperative breeding in birds: long-term studies of ecology and behaviour, pp. 289-332. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Deem, S.L., Cruz, M.B., Higashiguchi, J.M. and Parker, P.G. 2012. Diseases of poultry and endemic birds in Galapagos: implications for the reintroduction of native species. Animal Conservation 15: 73-82.
Grant, P. R.; Curry, R. L.; Grant, B. R. 2000. A remnant population of the Floreana mockingbird on Champion Island, Galápagos. Biological Conservation 92: 285-290.
Harris, M. P. 1968. Egg-eating by Galápagos Mockingbirds. Condor 70: 269-270.
Harris, M. P. 1973. The Galápagos avifauna. Condor 75: 265-278.
Hoeck, P. 2009. Encouraging news from 2009 Floreana Mockingbird survey - The dodo blog, Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust. Available at: #http://blog.durrell.org/index.cfm/2009/7/8/Encouraging-news-from-2009-Floreana-Mockingbird-survey#.
Hoeck, P.E.A. and Keller, L.F. 2012. Inbreeding, immune defence and ectoparasite load in different mockingbird populations and species in the Galápagos Islands. Journal of Avian Biology 43: 423-434.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 November 2015).
Jackson, M. H. 1985. Galapagos: a natural history guide. Calgary University Press, Calgary, Canada.
Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G. 2007. Censo del Cucuve de Floreana: Nesomimus trifasciatus 2007.
Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G.; Llerena, W.; Milstead, W. B.; Lomas, E. E.; Wiedenfeld, D. A. 2011. Is the population of the Floreana Mockingbird Mimus trifasciatus declining? Cotinga 33: 1-7.
Nicholls, H. 2013. Invasive species: The 18-km2 rat trap. Nature 497: 306-308.
Ortiz-Catedral, L. 2012. Reintroduction of the Floreana Mockingbird Mimus trifasciatus. Charles Darwin Foundation, Puerto Ayora.
Ortiz-Catedral, L. 2012b. Reintroduction of the Floreana Mockingbird Mimus trifasciatus. Reporting Period: 1-31 March and 1-30 April 2012. Charles Darwin Foundation.
Ortiz-Catedral, L. 2012c. Reintroduction of the Floreana Mockingbird Mimus trifasciatus. Reporting Period: 1-31 May and 1-30 June 2012. Charles Darwin Foundation.
Ortiz-Catedral, L. 2012d. Reintroduction of the Floreana Mockingbird Mimus trifasciatus. Reporting Period: 1-31 July and 1-31 August 2012. Charles Darwin Foundation.
Ortiz-Catedral, L. 2013. Action Plan for the Floreana Mockingbird Mimus trifasciatus 2012- 2015. Charles Darwin Foundation and Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust.
Ortiz-Catedral, L. 2014. Breeding season diet of the Floreana mockingbird (Mimus trifasciatus), a micro-endemic species from the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. Notornis 61(4): 196-199.
Ortiz-Catedral, L., Gaona, F., Ramirez, J., Llerena, A., Guilbert, J., Hamner, R. and Ortiz-Catedral, J. 2014. Floreana Mockingbird 2014 Field Season Update.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Steadman, D. W. 1986. Holocene vertebrate fossils from Isla Floreana, Galápagos. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
Wiedenfeld, D. A.; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G. A. 2008. Critical problems for bird conservation in the Galápagos Islands. Cotinga: 22-27.
Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.
Click here for more information about the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE)
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species
Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection
Text account compilers
Calvert, R., Gilroy, J., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., McClellan, R., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Khwaja, N. & Wright, L
Hoeck, P., Jiménez-Uzcátegui, G., Tye, A., Wiedenfeld, D. & de Vries, T.
IUCN Red List evaluators
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Mimus trifasciatus. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2016.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2016.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000)
Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004)
Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species