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Hill Myna Gracula religiosa
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This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
This species occurs Sri Lanka and the Western Ghats of India, east and north-east India east to southern China, and south through south-east Asia to Palawan (Philippines), Borneo, and Flores (Indonesia). There are also introduced populations in several places, including Puerto Rico (to USA). The introduced population on Christmas Island (to Australia) has died out.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as common to abundant (Feare and Craig 1998).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to trade and to widespread forest destruction, although rates of decline are unlikely to be higher than moderate, as this species is tolerant of secondary and degraded habitats.

This species occurs in moist or semi-evergreen forest in lowlands, hills and mountains. It is known for its ability to mimic noises including human speech.

This species is tolerant of some degree of habitat degradation. However,it has been heavily traded: from 1994-2003, over 170,000 wild-caught individuals were exported from range states (UNEP-WCMC CITES Trade Database, October 2005.). It is one of the most popular avian pets in Asia, due to its ability to mimic noises and human speech. Trade, acting in conjunction with habitat loss throughout the species' range, appears to have seriously impacted this species, with significant population declines due to trade noted in China, Indonesia, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand (all major declines), the Philippines, and parts of India and Laos (Pilgrim et al. in prep.). In all of these cases, the major trade demand has been domestic, rather than international. As a result of concerns about international trade, this species was included in CITES Appendix III at the request of Thailand in 1992 and subsequently included in Appendix II in 1997 on the recommendation of the Netherlands and the Philippines.

Related state of the world's birds case studies

Feare, C.; Craig, A. 1998. Starlings and Mynas. Christopher Helm, London.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Stattersfield, A., Pilgrim, J., Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Gracula religiosa. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Sturnidae (Starlings)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,990,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species