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Sri Lanka Myna Gracula ptilogenys

Justification
This species has a moderately small global range, and is likely to be declining as a result of habitat loss. It is able to persist in some degraded habitats, suggesting that it may not be at imminent risk, but the situation requires careful monitoring. It is currently considered Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
Gracula ptilogenys is endemic to the wet zone of Sri Lanka, where it is common to very common in lowlands and hills wherever forest persists.

Population justification
The population size of this species has not been quantified, but it is described as uncommon and local.

Trend justification
Declines are suspected to be occurring as a result of widespread forest destruction, although rates of decline are unlikely to be higher than moderate, as this species is tolerant of secondary and degraded habitats.

Ecology
This species prefers natural forest and well-wooded country, although it also visits gardens and plantations if forest is nearby. It appears to be relatively tolerant of habitat degradation.

Threats
Forest on Sri Lanka has suffered rapid degradation and fragmentation in the past decades through excessive gathering of fuelwood, clearance for permanent agriculture, shifting cultivation, fire, urbanisation and logging. Closed-canopy forest is estimated to have declined from 29,000 km2 (44% of the island's area) in 1956 to 12,260 km2 in 1983. It is feared that this loss will continue.

Conservation Actions Underway


Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct repeated surveys within the range to determine population trends and rates of habitat loss. Conduct ecological studies to improve understanding of its precise habitat requirements, particularly tolerance of secondary habitats and response to fragmentation. Grant protected status to areas of forest occupied by the species.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2009. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 14: Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Khwaja, N.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Gracula ptilogenys. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Sri Lanka myna (Gracula ptilogenys)

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Sturnidae (Starlings)
Species name author Blyth, 1846
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 16,100 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species