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LC
Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2014 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 8,870,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.6 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number > c.310,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004), while national population estimates include: < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Korea and < c.1,000 individuals on migration and < c.1,000 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: In Europe the overall trend from 1980-2011 was decreasing, based on provisional data for 27 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes    
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant        
Argentina Native Extant        
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Aruba (to Netherlands) Native Extant        
Australia Introduced Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Bahamas Native Extant        
Bahrain Native Extant   Yes    
Belarus Native Extant       Yes
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Bhutan Vagrant Extant        
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Bulgaria Native Extant       Yes
Canada Native Extant     Yes  
Cape Verde Vagrant Extant        
Cayman Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Croatia Native Extant       Yes
Cuba Native Extant        
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant     Yes Yes
Dominican Republic Native Extant        
Egypt Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant       Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant       Yes
Fiji Introduced Extant       Yes
Finland Native Extant     Yes Yes
France Native Extant       Yes
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Greece Native Extant     Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Haiti Native Extant        
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant        
Hungary Native Extant       Yes
Iceland Native Extant       Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant       Yes
Ireland Native Extant       Yes
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant       Yes
Jamaica Native Extant        
Japan Native Extant        
Jordan Native Extant   Yes    
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes    
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Latvia Native Extant       Yes
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Libya Native Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant Yes      
Lithuania Native Extant       Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant       Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Maldives Vagrant Extant        
Malta Native Extant       Yes
Mexico Native Extant        
Moldova Native Extant       Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Morocco Native Extant        
Myanmar Vagrant Extant        
Nepal Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
New Zealand Introduced Extant Yes      
Norway Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Oman Native Extant   Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes    
Panama Vagrant Extant        
Poland Native Extant       Yes
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) Native Extant        
Qatar Native Extant   Yes    
Romania Native Extant       Yes
Russia Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes   Yes  
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes    
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
South Korea Vagrant Extant        
Spain Native Extant       Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Introduced Extant       Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Vagrant Extant        
Sweden Native Extant       Yes
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Native Extant     Yes Yes
Taiwan (China) Vagrant Extant        
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Thailand Vagrant Extant        
Tonga Introduced Extant Yes      
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Native Extant        
Ukraine Native Extant       Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant       Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes
USA Introduced Extant Yes      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Vanuatu Vagrant Extant        
Vietnam Vagrant Extant        
Virgin Islands (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
Yemen Vagrant Extant   Yes    

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - -  
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - -  
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - -  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Sturnus vulgaris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Sturnidae (Starlings)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 17,200,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species