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Javan Cochoa Cochoa azurea

Justification
This unobtrusive species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a small and naturally fragmented range and population, which is likely to be declining owing to habitat loss at the lower fringes of its altitudinal range.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Identification
23 cm. Medium-sized, thrush-like bird of forest canopy. Male has silky-blue upperparts including sides of head, wings and tail. Black underparts, iris, bill and legs. Female duller blue above and dark brown below. Immature dull blue above with brown wing-coverts, fawn below, speckled dark brown. Similar spp. Male Sunda Whistling-thrush Myophonus glaucinus generally frequents lower storey of forest, is much plumper and uniform blue. Voice Thin high-pitched whistle siiiit and more scolding cet-cet-cet in alarm. Hints Scan mid-storey and canopy of forest for occasional short flights made by this species.

Distribution and population
Cochoa azurea is endemic to the mountains of west and central Java, Indonesia, where it is known from the higher peaks within a range spanning from Gunung Halimun to Gunung Slamet. There are recent records from just four localities. It appears to occur at low densities, although it is perhaps more unobtrusive than genuinely rare. Its population is nevertheless likely to be undergoing a steady decline as Javan montane forests become increasingly isolated by deforestation on lower slopes.

Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
A moderate and on-going population decline is suspected to be occurring as a result of habitat loss within the lower altitudinal range of the species, as well as possible effects of exploitation for the wild bird trade, although the likely rate has not been estimated.

Ecology
It inhabits montane rain forest between 900 and 3,000 m, where it is rather tame, moving quietly or sitting motionless for long periods, often in the lower and middle storeys, but also in the canopy. It is presumed to be largely sedentary, but may make local seasonal movements.

Threats
Forest loss, degradation and fragmentation, through widespread agricultural encroachment and localised development (e.g. holiday resorts and geothermal projects), is becoming an increasing threat in the lower altitudinal range of the species (900 m -1,500 m). The area above this zone is still relatively secure (N. Brickle in litt. 2012). It has also been recorded the domestic bird trade, albeit in very small numbers (N. Brickle in litt. 2007).


Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in two protected areas, Gunung Gede/Pangrango National Park and Gunung Halimun Nature Reserve (now Gunung Halimun-Salak National Park), both of which provide hope for a range of threatened species endemic to Java. The two areas cover over 500 km2 of forest between 500 m and 3,000 m. A substantial nature reserve has been proposed for Gunung Slamet (an historical site for the species), and a small nature reserve exists on Gunung Tangkuban Prahu, from where there are also historical records. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys for the species at all mountains potentially within its range to clarify its current distribution and population status. Propose key sites for establishment as protected areas, or as extensions to existing reserves. Cooperate with local authorities and relevant companies to minimise the impact of tourism and development projects on forested mountains within its range.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

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Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Derhé, M., Gilroy, J.

Contributors
Brickle, N., van Balen, B.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Cochoa azurea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Javan cochoa (Cochoa azurea) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Turdidae (Thrushes)
Species name author (Temminck, 1824)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 8,500 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species