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Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker Picoides tridactylus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2006 Least Concern
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 14,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 5000000-50000000 poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.8 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 350000-1100000 breeding pairs, equating to 1050000-3300000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 5-24% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 4380000-66000000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.
Trend justification: Although declines occurred in parts of its European range from 1970-2000, it has been stable across much of its European range during 1990-2000 (BirdLife International 2004).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania Native Extant Yes    
Austria Native Extant      
Belarus Native Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes    
Bulgaria Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes    
Croatia Native Extant      
Czech Republic Native Extant      
Denmark Vagrant Extant      
Estonia Native Extant      
Finland Native Extant      
France Native Extant      
Germany Native Extant Yes    
Greece Native Extant      
Hungary Vagrant Extant      
Italy Native Extant      
Japan Native Extant Yes    
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant      
Latvia Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant      
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant Yes    
North Korea Native Extant Yes    
Norway Native Extant Yes    
Poland Native Extant Yes    
Romania Native Extant      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Serbia Native Extant Yes    
Slovakia Native Extant      
Slovenia Native Extant      
Sweden Native Extant      
Switzerland Native Extant      
Ukraine Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Austria Niedere Tauern site factsheet
Belarus Brycalavičskaja Pušča site factsheet
Belarus Prypiackija baloty site factsheet
Bulgaria Persenk site factsheet
Bulgaria Pirin site factsheet
Bulgaria Rila site factsheet
Czech Republic Beskydy mountains site factsheet
Czech Republic Boletice site factsheet
Czech Republic Novohradské hory mountains site factsheet
Czech Republic Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest) site factsheet
Estonia Alam-Pedja site factsheet
Estonia Lahemaa site factsheet
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa site factsheet
Finland Elimyssalo site factsheet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests site factsheet
Finland Koitajoki area site factsheet
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju site factsheet
Finland Litokaira site factsheet
Finland Maltio fjelds site factsheet
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara site factsheet
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi site factsheet
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira site factsheet
Finland Ruunaa site factsheet
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira site factsheet
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi site factsheet
France Parc National de la Vanoise site factsheet
Latvia Abeli site factsheet
Latvia Gauja national park site factsheet
Latvia Kemeri national park site factsheet
Latvia Mangene forest site factsheet
Latvia Zvarde forest site factsheet
Lithuania A complex of Rokantiskes, Bezdonys, Buzaraistis and neighbouring forests site factsheet
Lithuania Adutiskis & Guntauninkai forest complex site factsheet
Lithuania Birzai forest site factsheet
Lithuania Buda-Pravieniskes forest complex site factsheet
Lithuania Cepkeliai Strict Nature Reserve site factsheet
Lithuania Padauguva forest complex site factsheet
Lithuania Rudninkai forest complex site factsheet
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains site factsheet
Poland Beskid Slaski Mountains site factsheet
Poland Beskid Zywiecki Mountains site factsheet
Poland Bialowieza Forest site factsheet
Poland Bieszczady Mountains site factsheet
Poland Gorce mountains site factsheet
Poland Knyszyn Forest site factsheet
Poland Przemysl Plateau site factsheet
Poland Slonne Mountains site factsheet
Poland Tatra mountains site factsheet
Romania Călimani Mountains site factsheet
Romania Ceahlă Mountains site factsheet
Romania Defileul Superior al Mureşului site factsheet
Romania Frumoasa site factsheet
Romania Giurgeu Depression site factsheet
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain site factsheet
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău site factsheet
Romania Retezat Mountains site factsheet
Romania Rodnei Mountains site factsheet
Romania Vrancea Mountains site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of Northern Ural site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) East slope of the Northern Ural site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of Tuy river site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Molebny Kamen' ridge site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Poyasovy Kamen' ridge site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Visimsky zapovednik and vicinity site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Yel'tsovskaya site factsheet
Russia (Central Asian) Zapovednik "Denezhkin Kamen'" site factsheet
Russia (European) Kvarkush and Zolotoy Kamen' ridges site factsheet
Russia (European) Lapland Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Pinezhski Nature Reserve site factsheet
Slovakia Horna Orava site factsheet
Slovakia Malá Fatra site factsheet
Slovakia Nízke Tatry site factsheet
Slovakia Velká Fatra site factsheet
Slovakia Volovské hills site factsheet
Slovenia Grintovci site factsheet
Slovenia Jelovica plateau site factsheet
Slovenia Julijci site factsheet
Slovenia Kočevsko site factsheet
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley site factsheet
Sweden Färnebofjärden site factsheet
Sweden Muddus site factsheet
Sweden Sjöängen - Svartån site factsheet
Switzerland Heinzenberg mountain and surrounding valleys site factsheet
Switzerland Lower Engadine and Swiss National Park site factsheet
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Pays d'Enhaut site factsheet
Switzerland Pre-alpine region of Schwyz site factsheet
Switzerland Upper Toggenburg and Säntis site factsheet
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
Ukraine Gorgany site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Boreal major non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude 650 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Picoides tridactylus. Downloaded from on 12/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 12/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size 5000000-50000000 mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 14,600,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species