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Lompobatang Flycatcher Ficedula bonthaina
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Justification
This flycatcher has a very small range and population, which are suspected to be declining very rapidly as a direct result of extensive habitat loss. All remaining individuals are thought to be confined to one population. It is therefore listed as Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Identification
10-11 cm. Tiny, drab, unobtrusive flycatcher. Male olive-brown above with deep chestnut uppertail-coverts and tail. Large orange spot above lores. Orange-buff throat and upper breast. Lower breast to vent white with grey brown flanks. Female has paler throat and breast. Similar spp. Female Snowy-browed Flycatcher F. hyperythra has paler throat and duller brown tail. Female Rufous-throated Flycatcher F. rufigula has much duller tail and lacks rufous supraloral spot. Female Mangrove Blue-flycatcher Cyornis rufigastra is larger, lacking white belly and rufous on tail. Voice Undocumented.

Distribution and population
Ficedula bonthaina is only known from the Lompobatang massif at the southern tip of Sulawesi, Indonesia. Although only known historically from two localities, it was evidently common until at least the 1930s, when a large series of specimens was collected. Since then, however, there has been just two records, in 1995 of two birds (possibly a pair) and in 2004, when two or three birds were observed in a brief visit to forest above Malino (Eaton, J. in litt. 2007). The paucity of observations suggests that it may now occur only at low densities, and considering the severe loss of habitat within its restricted range, it must have undergone a dramatic decline.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals (Alstrom in litt. 2000).

Trend justification
Very rapid population declines are suspected to be on-going within this species's small range, as a result of rapid habitat clearance and degradation.

Ecology
It inhabits tropical lower and upper montane rainforest above 1,100 m. The only recent observations were in the dense, heavily shaded understorey (below c.4.5 m) of disturbed forest dominated by saplings and Pandanus palms, with a discontinuous canopy caused by tree-falls. It apparently avoids adjacent forest with a more open understorey. It is not known whether the species is subject to any altitudinal movements, but this could be crucial to its survival prospects.

Threats
The environs of the Lompobatang massif are one of the most densely populated areas of Sulawesi and all forest below 1,000-1,500 m, and locally up to 1,700 m, has disappeared as a result of land clearance for transmigration settlements, commercial logging and both shifting and plantation agriculture. Remaining forest continues to be threatened by human activities.

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known. However, 200 km2 of "protection forest" on Gunung Lompobatang (which is heavily disturbed below 1,000-1,700 m, but rises to 3,000 m) has been proposed for establishment as a nature reserve. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct extensive surveys in the Lompobatang massif to identify all remaining forest tracts supporting populations. Establish a strict protected area to encompass as much remaining forest on the massif as possible. Promote effective enforcement of protected-area regulations to minimise alternative land-use development and control further exploitation of the area. Initiate local directives for forest protection and promote a widespread education programme highlighting the importance of the Lompobatang massif as the major water catchment area supplying the large cities of Ujung Pandang and Maros.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Click here for more information about the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE)

Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Derhé, M., Gilroy, J.

Contributors
Eaton, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Ficedula bonthaina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Muscicapidae (Chats and Old World flycatchers)
Species name author (Hartert, 1896)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 820 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species