This species qualifies as Vulnerable because the remaining population could be small and declining, as previously estimated. Recent data, however, suggest that the population size is now above the threshold for Vulnerable and that population trends have reversed, and should this be confirmed the species may warrant downlisting in the future.
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
22 cm. Rather small black-and-white woodpecker with longish bill. Above black barred white. Below white with black spots or streaks on flanks. Black crown, nape and moustachial stripe border white cheeks and side of neck. Male has a few tiny red feathers (usually hidden) on the side of crown. Juvenile duller black with variable extent of red on center of forehead, juvenile female with flecks of white on forehead, especially near the bill. Similar spp. Hairy Woodpecker P. villosus usually lacks "ladder-backed" appearance and white cheek patch. Voice Drumming infrequent and not loud. Distinctive shrrit call most commonly heard, also a rattle and wide range of social twittering and chortles. Hints Active nest and roost-trees have distinctive sap flows from small, shallow holes excavated above and below the cavity.
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Jackson, J. A. 1994. Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 85, pp. 1-20. The Academy of Natural Sciences, and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC.
Bonnie, R. 1997. Strategies for conservation of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker on private lands. Endangered Species Update 14(7-8): 45-47.
Winkler, H.; Christie, D. A.; Nurney, D. 1995. Woodpeckers: a guide to the woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, U.K.
Conner, R. N.; Rudolph, D. C. 1995. Losses of Red-cockaded Woodpeckers cavity trees to southern pine beetles. Wilson Bulletin 107: 81-92.
Thomlinson, J. R. 1995. Landscape characteristics associated with active and abandoned Red-cockaded Woodpecker clusters in east Texas. Wilson Bulletin 107: 603-614.
James, F. C. 1995. The status of the Red-cockaded Woodpecker in 1990 and the prospect for recovery. In: Kulhary, D.L.; Hooper, R.G.; Costa, R. (ed.), Red-cockaded Woodpecker: recovery, ecology and management, pp. 439-451. Center for Applied Studies in Forestry Publication, College of Forestry, Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacodgdoches, Texas.
Kennedy, E. T.; Costa, R.; Smathers, W. M. 1996. Economic incentives: new directions for Red-cockaded Woodpecker habitat conservation. Journal of Forestry 94: 22-26.
Guynn, D. 1997. Red-cockaded Woodpeckers. Bird Watcher's Digest 20: 60-65.
Saenz, D.; Conner, R. N.; Shackleford, C. E.; Rudolph, D. C. 1998. Pileated Woodpecker damage to Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity trees in eastern Texas. Wilson Bulletin 110: 362-367.
Jackson, J. A. 2000. Red-cockaded Woodpecker. In: Reading, R.P.; Miller, B. (ed.), Endangered animals: a reference guide to conflicting issues, pp. 241-246. Greenwood Press, London.
Duncan, L.; Andrews, L.; Costa, R.; Lohr, S. 2001. A safe harbor for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker. Endangered Species Bulletin 26: 16-18.
Schaefer, R. R.; Conner, R.N.; Rudolph, D. G.; Saenz, D. 2004. Red-cockaded Woodpecker nestling provisioning and reproduction in two different pine habitats. Wilson Bulletin 116: 31-40.
Schiegg, K..; Daniels, S.J.; Walters, J. R.; Priddy, J. A.; Pasinelli, G. 2006. Inbreeding in Red-cockaded Woodpeckers: effects of natal dispersal distance and territory location. Biological Conservation 131: 544-552.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2008. Red-cockaded Woodpecker Fact Sheet. Available at: #http://www.fws.gov/rcwrecovery/files/rcwoodpecker.pdf.
Further web sources of information
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Calvert, R., Isherwood, I., Taylor, J., Wege, D.
Jackson, J., McDearman, W.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Picoides borealis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Vulnerable|
|Species name author||(Vieillot, 1809)|
|Population size||9000-11000 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||604,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|