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Middle Spotted Woodpecker Leiopicus medius
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type   Average mass 59 g


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,910,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.2 - - -
Population justification: In Europe (which covers >95% of the breeding range), the breeding population is estimated to be 140,000-310,000 breeding pairs, equating to 420,000-930,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004).
Trend justification: In Europe, trends since 1982 show that populations have undergone a moderate increase (p<0.05), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Belarus Native Extant       Yes
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Bulgaria Native Extant       Yes
Croatia Native Extant       Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Vagrant Extinct   Yes    
Estonia Native Extant Yes      
France Native Extant       Yes
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant       Yes
Greece Native Extant       Yes
Hungary Native Extant       Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant       Yes
Italy Native Extant       Yes
Latvia Native Extant       Yes
Liechtenstein Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Lithuania Native Extant       Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant       Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Moldova Native Extant       Yes
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Netherlands Native Extant Yes      
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Romania Native Extant       Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sweden Native Extinct Yes      
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Native Extant       Yes
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Ukraine Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Austria Lower Mur valley site factsheet
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge site factsheet
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna site factsheet
Austria Vienna forest site factsheet
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz site factsheet
Azerbaijan Astara-chai valley site factsheet
Belarus Brycalavičskaja Pušča site factsheet
Belarus Prypiackija baloty site factsheet
Belgium Daverdisse site factsheet
Belgium Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse site factsheet
Belgium Haute Sûre/Ardenne méridionale site factsheet
Belgium Lesse et Lomme site factsheet
Belgium Sinémurienne site factsheet
Bulgaria Bakarlaka site factsheet
Bulgaria Batova site factsheet
Bulgaria Emine site factsheet
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain site factsheet
Bulgaria Kotlenska Mountain site factsheet
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau site factsheet
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets site factsheet
Bulgaria Strandzha site factsheet
Bulgaria Western Balkan site factsheet
Bulgaria Western Strandzha site factsheet
Croatia Lower Sava river site factsheet
Czech Republic Bzenecka Doubrava-Straznicke Pomoravi site factsheet
Czech Republic Confluence of the Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya) rivers - Tvrdonicko site factsheet
Czech Republic Hlubocké obory deer parks site factsheet
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region) site factsheet
Czech Republic Lednicke rybniky ponds (Lednice fish-ponds) site factsheet
Czech Republic Litovelske Pomoravi site factsheet
Czech Republic Pálava site factsheet
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region) site factsheet
France Bassigny site factsheet
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids site factsheet
France Etangs d'Argonne site factsheet
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris site factsheet
France Forêt de Châtillon et environs site factsheet
France Forêt de Chaux site factsheet
France Forêt de Citeaux et environs site factsheet
France Forêt de Haguenau site factsheet
France Forêt de Jugny site factsheet
France Forêt domaniale de la Harth site factsheet
France Forêt du Gavre site factsheet
France Forêts de Thiérache : Trelon, Fourmies, Hirson et St-Michel site factsheet
France Forêts picardes : Compiègne, Laigue, Ourscamp site factsheet
France Forêts picardes : massif de Retz site factsheet
France Forêts picardes : massif de Saint-Gobain site factsheet
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi site factsheet
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux site factsheet
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient site factsheet
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens site factsheet
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes site factsheet
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat site factsheet
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye site factsheet
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg site factsheet
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg site factsheet
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim site factsheet
Georgia Eastern Caucasus site factsheet
Georgia Iori Region site factsheet
Greece Akarnanika mountains site factsheet
Greece Antikhassia mountains and Meteora site factsheet
Greece Area of Oriokastro, Lake Delvinaki, Meropis forest, Gormou valley and Mounts Kasidiaris and Douskon site factsheet
Greece Central part of Zagori and Mount Mitsikeli site factsheet
Greece Central Rodopi mountains and Nestos valley site factsheet
Greece Filiouri river valley and east Rodopi mountains site factsheet
Greece Mavrovouni mountain, Larissa site factsheet
Greece Mount Foloi site factsheet
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area site factsheet
Greece Mount Olympos, Lesvos site factsheet
Greece Mounts Tzena and Pinovo site factsheet
Greece South-west peninsula-petrified forest, Lesvos site factsheet
Greece Valtou mountains site factsheet
Italy Abruzzo National Park site factsheet
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands site factsheet
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains site factsheet
Latvia Gauja national park site factsheet
Latvia Kemeri national park site factsheet
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine site factsheet
Latvia Ukri forest site factsheet
Latvia Ziemelgauja site factsheet
Latvia Zvarde forest site factsheet
Lithuania Babtai-Varlenai forest complex site factsheet
Lithuania Baldieriskis forest site factsheet
Lithuania Buda-Pravieniskes forest complex site factsheet
Lithuania Dotnuva-Josvainiai forest complex site factsheet
Lithuania Gruzai, Uzulenis, Taujenai, Skaistuziai and neighbouring forests complex site factsheet
Lithuania Kauno Marios water reservoir & eastern coastal zone site factsheet
Lithuania Lanciunava forest site factsheet
Lithuania Punia forest site factsheet
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
Luxembourg Region of Mompach, Manternach, Bech and Osweiler site factsheet
Luxembourg Region of the Middle Lias site factsheet
Luxembourg Upper Valley of the Sure site factsheet
Poland Bialowieza Forest site factsheet
Poland Borecka forest site factsheet
Poland Elblag Height site factsheet
Poland Ilawa Forest site factsheet
Poland Kozienicka Forest site factsheet
Poland Krotoszyn Oak Forest site factsheet
Poland Middle Odra River Valley site factsheet
Poland Middle Warta River Valley site factsheet
Poland Niepolomice forest site factsheet
Poland Odra riverine forests site factsheet
Poland Rogalin Site site factsheet
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei site factsheet
Romania Babadag wood site factsheet
Romania Cursul Mijlociu al Someşului site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Homoroadelor site factsheet
Romania Dealurile Târnavelor - Valea Nirajului site factsheet
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului site factsheet
Romania Dorohoi - Şaua Bucecei site factsheet
Romania Fizes valley site factsheet
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel site factsheet
Romania Podişul Hârtibaciului site factsheet
Russia (European) Caucasus Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
Russia (European) Gavan'skie oak-forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Lower Urushten river site factsheet
Russia (European) Nerussa - Desna woodland site factsheet
Russia (European) Upper Voronezh forest site factsheet
Serbia Bosutska forest site factsheet
Serbia Cer mountain site factsheet
Serbia Fruska gora site factsheet
Serbia Obedska bara site factsheet
Serbia Valjevske mountains site factsheet
Slovakia Malé Karpaty site factsheet
Slovakia Slanské hills site factsheet
Slovakia Slovenský karst site factsheet
Slovakia Strazovske hills site factsheet
Slovakia Vihorlat site factsheet
Slovenia Dobrava - Jovsi site factsheet
Slovenia Krakovo forest and Šentjernej plain site factsheet
Slovenia River Mura site factsheet
Spain Babia-Somiedo site factsheet
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains site factsheet
Spain Fuentes Carrionas site factsheet
Spain Izki mountains site factsheet
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range site factsheet
Spain Riaño site factsheet
Spain Turbón-Espés-Sis site factsheet
Turkey Yenice forest site factsheet
Ukraine Carpathian Biosphere Reserve site factsheet
Ukraine Carpathian Vulkanichnyj Mountains site factsheet
Ukraine Kremenets'kyj forest site factsheet
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Temperate major resident
Altitude 0 - 2300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Leiopicus medius. Downloaded from on 28/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,910,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment