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Redwing Turdus iliacus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2b+3b+4b 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2015 Near Threatened
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass 61.2 g


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,370,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing Suspected -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.2 - - -
Population justification: The European population is estimated at 13,200,000-20,100,000 pairs, which equates to 26,300,000-40,300,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c. 40% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 98,000,000-151,000,000 individuals although further validation of this estimate is needed.
Trend justification: In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing at a rate approaching 30% in 15.6 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015) this is supported by data from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands, P. Vorisek in litt. 2008) which shows that in Europe the populations has undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01) since 1980. However only around 40% of the species's range falls within Europe, with the global population trend dependent on trends in Asian Russia. In European Russia, the population has declined by >20% since 2000 and by >30% since 1980 (BirdLife International 2015). It therefore seems likely that the Asian Russian population has experienced at least some decline. The overall population is therefore suspected to be declining at a rate approaching 30%.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes    
Albania Native Extant        
Algeria Native Extant        
Austria Native Extant   Yes    
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes    
Bahrain Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Belarus Native Extant       Yes
Belgium Native Extant   Yes    
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant        
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes    
Canada Vagrant Extant        
Croatia Native Extant   Yes    
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes    
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Egypt Native Extant        
Estonia Native Extant       Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant       Yes
Finland Native Extant     Yes Yes
France Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes    
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes      
Hungary Native Extant   Yes    
Iceland Native Extant       Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Iraq Native Extant   Yes    
Ireland Native Extant   Yes    
Israel Native Extant        
Italy Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Japan Vagrant Extant        
Jordan Vagrant Extant        
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes    
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant     Yes  
Latvia Native Extant       Yes
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes  
Libya Vagrant Extant        
Liechtenstein Native Extant        
Lithuania Native Extant       Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant   Yes    
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes    
Malta Native Extant        
Montenegro Native Extant        
Morocco Native Extant        
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes    
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Poland Native Extant       Yes
Portugal Native Extant   Yes    
Romania Native Extant   Yes    
Russia Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes    
Serbia Native Extant        
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes    
Spain Native Extant   Yes    
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Native Extant Yes      
Sweden Native Extant       Yes
Switzerland Native Extant   Yes    
Syria Native Extant   Yes    
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant   Yes    
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant   Yes    
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes
USA Vagrant Extant        
Uzbekistan Native Extant        

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Italy Cividalese and upper Torre valley site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land Suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland Suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations Suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens Suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens Suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas Suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal Major breeding
Forest Temperate Major breeding
Forest Temperate Suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra Suitable breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) Suitable breeding
Shrubland Boreal Suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate Suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Subsistence, National
Food - human - - - Subsistence, National
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Turdus iliacus. Downloaded from on 25/11/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/11/2015.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Turdidae (Thrushes)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1766
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,370,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment