email a friend
printable version
Redwing Turdus iliacus

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass 61.2 g


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,370,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 4,370,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.2 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 16,000,000-21,000,000 breeding pairs, equating to 48,000,000-63,000,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 50-74% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 65,000,000-130,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. The population in Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: In Europe, trends since 1980 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (p<0.01), based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant   Yes  
Albania Native Extant      
Algeria Native Extant      
Austria Native Extant   Yes  
Azerbaijan Native Extant   Yes  
Bahrain Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Belarus Native Extant      
Belgium Native Extant   Yes  
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant      
Bulgaria Native Extant   Yes  
Canada Native Extant      
Croatia Native Extant   Yes  
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant      
Denmark Native Extant   Yes Yes
Egypt Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant      
Finland Native Extant     Yes
France Native Extant   Yes Yes
Germany Native Extant     Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Native Extant   Yes  
Greece Native Extant   Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) Native Extant Yes    
Hungary Native Extant   Yes  
Iceland Native Extant      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Iraq Native Extant   Yes  
Ireland Native Extant   Yes  
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Native Extant   Yes Yes
Japan Vagrant Extant      
Jordan Vagrant Extant      
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kuwait Native Extant   Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant     Yes
Latvia Native Extant      
Lebanon Native Extant   Yes Yes
Libya Vagrant Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant      
Luxembourg Native Extant   Yes  
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant   Yes  
Malta Native Extant      
Montenegro Native Extant      
Morocco Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant   Yes  
Norway Native Extant Yes    
Poland Native Extant      
Portugal Native Extant   Yes  
Romania Native Extant   Yes  
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Saudi Arabia Native Extant   Yes  
Serbia Native Extant      
Slovakia Native Extant      
Slovenia Native Extant   Yes  
Spain Native Extant   Yes  
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Native Extant Yes    
Sweden Native Extant      
Switzerland Native Extant   Yes  
Syria Native Extant   Yes  
Tunisia Native Extant      
Turkey Native Extant   Yes  
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant   Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant      
USA Native Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant      

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Forest Boreal major breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Turdus iliacus. Downloaded from on 17/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 17/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Turdidae (Thrushes)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1766
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,370,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species