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Wood Thrush Hylocichla mustelina

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2a 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2014 Near Threatened
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,490,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 645,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.1 - - -
Population justification: This species is characterised as common.
Trend justification: Survey data obtained in the species's breeding range indicate that its population is in decline. Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data yield an average survey-wide yearly trend of -2.71% between 1999 and 2011, decreasing from an abundance index of 4.08 birds/route in 1999 to 2.86 birds/route in 2011 (Sauer et al. 2012). These results imply that the species underwent a c.30% decline over those 12 years (estimate of three generations). The trend between 1999 and 2011 appears to be part of a longer term negative trend overall, stretching back to 1966 at least, when the annual index was 8.03 birds/route (Sauer et al. 2012). The average survey-wide yearly trend from 1966 to 2011 is -2.22%. As with any broad-scale analysis of population trends, there are inherent uncertainties in the BBS trend data and analyses (Sauer et al. 2012), and given that the results imply a rate of decline that may just meet the threshold of a 30% decline over a three-generation period that does not equate to the past three generations (which would be 2001-2013), it is thought appropriate to estimate the overall rate of decline at 25-29% over the past 12 years until further evidence is obtained.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Bahamas Vagrant Extant        
Belize Native Extant   Yes    
Bermuda (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Vagrant Extant        
Canada Native Extant Yes      
Cayman Islands (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
Colombia Native Extant        
Costa Rica Native Extant   Yes    
Cuba Native Extant        
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Vagrant Extant        
Dominican Republic Vagrant Extant        
El Salvador Native Extant        
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Vagrant Extant        
Guatemala Native Extant        
Haiti Vagrant Extant        
Honduras Native Extant        
Iceland Vagrant Extant        
Jamaica Vagrant Extant        
Mexico Native Extant        
Nicaragua Native Extant   Yes    
Panama Native Extant        
Portugal Vagrant Extant        
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vagrant Extant        
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Vagrant Extant        
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Vagrant Extant     Yes  
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Vagrant Extant        
United Kingdom Vagrant Extant        
USA Native Extant Yes      

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Altitude 0 - 600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Air-borne pollutants / Acid rain Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - -  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Hylocichla mustelina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Turdidae (Thrushes)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1789)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,490,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species