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Spotted Ground-thrush Zoothera guttata

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered C2a(i) 
Vulnerable C2a(i) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Endangered
2008 Endangered
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type continent
Average mass 57.5 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 35,400 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 72,300 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 600-1700 poor Estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 51-250 - - -
Population justification: The estimates provided for some known populations (guttata 400-800 pairs; fischeri c.200 pairs; belcheri 30-40 pairs) suggest that the world population numbers less than 2,500 individuals, therefore it is placed in the range bracket for 1,000-2,499 individuals. This equates to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.
Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to be declining in line with habitat loss and degradation within its range. Surveys of Kenyan coastal forest in 2003 suggest that the species may have undergone very rapid declines since the 1980s (Ndang'ang'a et al. 2008). The likely overall rate of decline, however, has not been estimated.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Native Extant Yes    
Kenya Native Extant   Yes  
Malawi Native Extant      
Mozambique Native Extant      
South Africa Native Extant      
South Sudan Native Extant      
Sudan Native Extant Yes    
Tanzania Native Extant     Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Upemba National Park site factsheet
Kenya Arabuko-Sokoke Forest site factsheet
Kenya Diani Forest site factsheet
Kenya Gede Ruins National Monument site factsheet
Kenya Kaya Gandini site factsheet
Kenya Kaya Waa site factsheet
Kenya Mrima Hill Forest site factsheet
Kenya Shimba Hills site factsheet
Malawi Mount Mulanje Forest Reserve site factsheet
Malawi Soche Mountain Forest Reserve site factsheet
Malawi Thyolo Mountain Forest Reserve site factsheet
Mozambique Maputo Special Reserve site factsheet
Mozambique Mount Mabu site factsheet
South Africa Dhlinza Forest Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Dwesa and Cwebe Nature Reserves site factsheet
South Africa Entumeni Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Lake St Lucia and Mkuze Swamps site factsheet
South Africa Mkambati Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Ongoye Forest Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Oribi Gorge Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Umlalazi Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Africa Umtamvuna Nature Reserve site factsheet
South Sudan Imatong mountains site factsheet
Tanzania Kisarawe District Coastal Forests site factsheet
Tanzania Lindi District Coastal Forests site factsheet
Tanzania Pande Game Reserve and Dondwe Coastal Forests site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1750 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) No decline Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Domestic Cat (Felis catus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression / Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Excess energy / Light pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Zoothera guttata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Turdidae (Thrushes)
Species name author (Vigors, 1831)
Population size 600-1700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 35,400 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Climate change species distributions