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Black-eared Ground-thrush Zoothera camaronensis

Justification
Although this species may have a restricted range, it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li

Taxonomic note
Zoothera camaronensis and Z. kibalensis (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993), the latter also recognised as a species (but placed in the genus Turdus) by Collar and Andrew (1988), are lumped into Z. camaronensis following Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993). (Note change in spelling of specific name).

Distribution and population
This species is found in western and central Africa, and occurs as three subspecies. The nominate camaronensis is found in southern Cameroon, discontinuously from Korup National Park and the western Bakossi Mountains, Mt Cameroon, and the coastal forests at Efulen, Kribi, Ndian, Campo and Grand Betange; at Monte Alen National Park in Equatorial Guinea; and also in north-east Gabon. Subspecies graueri is known from Ituri Forest in north-east Democratic Republic of Congo, and Budongo and Bugoma forests in western Uganda. Subspecies kibalensis is only known from two adult males collected in Kibale forest, south-west Uganda (Clement and Hathway 2000, Fishpool and Evans 2001, Urban et al. 1997).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as very rare to rare and very poorly known (del Hoyo et al. 2005).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and fragmentation (del Hoyo et al. 2005).

Ecology
This species occurs in the dense undergrowth of lowland and temperate forest, up to 1,700 m in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In Uganda it is known to occur in low herbaceous ground vegetation in pristine mature forests of ironwood and mahogany. Its nest and eggs are unknown, but it probably nests at the end of the dry season and in the long rains (Clement and Hathway 2000, Urban et al. 1997).

Threats
Due to its distinct preference for lowland forest, in Cameroon it is threatened by habitat loss, and Kibale forest in Uganda is severely threatened by deforestation. Ituri Forest has also suffered severe deforestation during the last decade of disturbance in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The species is absent from large areas of apparently suitable habitat, and appears to be highly sensitive to habitat disturbance (J. Lindsell in litt. 2005).

References
Clement, P.; Hathway, R. 2000. Thrushes. Christopher Helm, London.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2005. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 10: Cuckoo-shrikes to Thrushes. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Fishpool, L. D. C.; Evans, M. I. 2001. Important Bird Areas in Africa and associated islands: priority sites for conservation. Pisces Publications and BirdLife International, Newbury and Cambridge.

Urban, E. K.; Fry, C. H.; Keith, S. 1997. The birds of Africa vol. V. Academic Press, London.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Pilgrim, J., Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Harding, M.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Zoothera camaronensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Turdidae (Thrushes)
Species name author (Sharpe, 1905)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 143,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species