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Monteiro's Bush-shrike Malaconotus monteiri
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
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This species is classified as Near Threatened because it occupies a moderately small range, in which its habitat is being destroyed and degraded, and a corresponding decline in its population is inferred.

Taxonomic source(s)
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

25 cm. A large green, yellow and grey shrike of rain forest. The grey head, clear yellow underparts and yellow spotted wings and green mantle are all characters that make this species distinctive. Similar spp. Much paler than Green-breasted Bush-shrike with its occurs alongside. Further differs by heavier bill and clear white eye ring. Voice Similar mournful whistle to Greenbreasted Bush-shrike but shorter and given in series of five. not three notes. Hints Best area is forests trails on Mt Kupe, Cameroon.

Distribution and population
Malaconotus monteiri is known only from a small number of records from a few sites on the escarpment zone of Angola (although surveys in 2005 found it to be more widespread than previously thought, with records from eight of the 13 sites visited, ranging from Dande River in the north, to Canjala [Egito] in the south [Mills and Dean 2007, Mills 2010]) and Cameroon (including a 19th century specimen from Mt Cameroon). The acquisition of adequate information on this species has been hampered by difficulties in distinguishing it from the very similar Grey-headed Bush-shrike M. blanchoti (Mills 2010). Records from Mt Moco, Quipeio and Chitau are thought to relate to M. blanchoti, and recent records from Cameroon are perhaps best considered unconfirmed (Mills 2010). In 1992, it was not found during survey work on the Angolan scarp, but a single bird believed to be M. monteiro was seen on Mt Kupe, Cameroon. It may occur in Reserva do Ambriz, north of Luanda, Angola, but no bird lists are available from there (W. R. J. Dean in litt. 1999). Surveys are needed to confirm its occurrence on Mt Kupe and its continued existence on Mt Cameroon (E. M. O'Kah in litt. 1999).

Population justification
This is a poorly known species and no population estimates are available.

Trend justification
This species's population is suspected to be in decline owing to on-going habitat destruction.

It occurs in drier forest above and below the main scarp, but not in the moister forest on the main scarp, and appears to be locally fairly common (Mills 2010). It shows some tolerance of habitat modification and transitional habitats, having been recorded in forest under-planted with coffee, moist secondary growth, coffee plantations, thickets and riverine forest (P. Vaz Pinto in litt. 2012).

Considerable forest loss was noted to have occurred during survey work on the Angolan scarp in 1992 and the loss of habitat to subsistence agriculture is continuing; at Gabela 20-70% of canopy trees in places and all the undergrowth in valley bottoms is being cleared to plant bananas and sweet potatoes (W. R. J. Dean in litt. 1999). In other areas, up to 95% of the forest canopy is being removed to plant cassava and maize (W. R. J. Dean in litt. 1999). During a visit to the species's range in 2008, it was found that large areas of overgrown shade coffee plantations and secondary growth in Kumbira Forest and around Seles were being converted to manioc, banana and maize cultivation by subsistence farmers (F. Olmos in litt. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known. Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out further surveys in Angola to determine the distribution of the species and to better assess how threatened it is and to recommend suitable sites for nature reserves, and conduct surveys to confirm the species's occurrence on Mt Kupe and its continued existence on Mt Cameroon (E. M. O'Kah in litt. 1999). Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation in its range. Protect areas of suitable habitat.

Collar, N. J.; Stuart, S. N. 1985. Threatened birds of Africa and related islands: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge, U.K.

Dean, E. 2011. Birds of one tree: participatory forestry and land claims in Tanzania. Human Organization 70(3): 300-309.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2009. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 14: Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Hall, B. P.; Moreau, R. M.; Galbraith, I. C. J. 1966. Polymorphism and parallelism in the African bush-shrikes of the genus Malaconotus (including Chlorophoneus). Ibis 108: 160-181.

Mills, M. S. L. 2010. Angola's central scarp forests: patterns of bird diversity and conservation threats. Biodiversity and Conservation 19(7): 1883-1903.

Mills, M. S. L.; Dean, W. R. J. 2007. Notes on Angolan birds: new country records, range extensions and taxonomic questions. Ostrich 78: 55-63.

Mills, M.S.L.; Dean W. R.J. in prep.. A revision of the avifauna of Angola..

Williams, E. 1998. Green-breasted Bush-shrike Malaconotus gladiator and its relationship with Monteiro's Bush-shrike M. monteiri. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 5(2): 101-104.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Bird, J., Butchart, S., Pilgrim, J., Shutes, S., Starkey, M., Symes, A., Taylor, J.

Dean, W., Dowsett-Lemaire, F., Mills, M., O'Kah, E., Olmos, F., Vaz Pinto, P.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Malaconotus monteiri. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

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Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Malaconotidae (Helmetshrikes, bushshrikes and puffbacks)
Species name author (Sharpe, 1870)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 25,300 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change