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White-tailed Monarch Monarcha leucurus

Justification
This species has a very small range, covering a number of small islands, and is likely to have a moderately small global population size. It is probably in decline owing to habitat loss, although its habitat and population are not regarded as severely fragmented or restricted to a few locations. It is therefore currently considered Near Threatened, but further studies are urgently required to clarify its status.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
Monarcha leucurus is restricted to the Kai Islands, in the Banda Sea Islands Endemic Bird Area, Indonesia (BirdLife International 2001). It is apparently common in all woodland habitats within its range, but recent population and habitat trends are unknown.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as common or very common (del Hoyo et al. 2006).

Trend justification
This species's population is suspected to be in decline owing to on-going habitat loss (del Hoyo et al. 2006).

Ecology
This species is found in lowland primary and secondary forests, including coastal monsoon forest, mangroves and hill forest, up to 625 m. It is also recorded from woodland on the edges of cultivation.

Threats
This species may be vulnerable to forest loss within its small range, as a result of logging and agricultural conversion.

Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted conservation actions are known for this species, although some of its habitat is protected.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor populations to assess trends and rates of habitat loss. Conduct ecological studies to improve understanding of its precise habitat requirements, tolerance of secondary habitats and response to fragmentation. As a precaution, protect significant areas of suitable forest, in both strictly protected areas and community-led multiple use areas.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2006. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 11: Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Monarcha leucurus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Monarchidae (Monarchs)
Species name author Gray, 1858
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,100 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species