Once among the rarest birds of the world, this species has been brought back from the brink of extinction. It has been downlisted to Vulnerable as the population has increased in recent years owing to intensive conservation efforts with no evidence of a continuing decline for for the last five years. However, it still has a very small population and range and remains threatened by chance events such as cyclones other stochastic factors that could drive it to qualify as Critically Endangered or even Extinct in a short time period. The survival of the species remains dependent on a continuation of intensive conservation efforts.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Identification: 14 cm. Inquisitive, grey-and-white flycatcher. First year, orange plumage with yellow base to lower mandible, 2nd year, orange plumage with evenly steel-blue bill (in hand, appearing black in field), 3rd year, mixed grey-and-orange plumage, black bill, 4th year, grey and white plumage, black bill. Similar spp. None, the smallest landbird on Rarotonga, could only be confused as an adult (momentarily) with adult Rarotonga Starling Aplonis cinerascens. Voice Wide variety of discordant calls. Loud male territorial call given repeatedly during pre-breeding period, and onomatopoeically rendered as Kakerori, the bird's Maori name.
Related state of the world's birds case studies
Hay, R. 1986. Bird conservation in the Pacific Islands. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
McCormack, G.; Künzle, J. 1990. Kakerori - Rarotonga's endangered flycatcher.
Robertson, H. A.; Hay, J. R.; Saul, E. K.; McCormack, G. V. 1994. Recovery of the Kakerori: an endangered forest bird of the Cook Islands. Conservation Biology 8(4): 1078-1086.
Sanders, K. H.; Minot, E. O.; Fordham, R. A. 1995. Juvenile dispersion and use of habitat by the endangered Kakerori Pomarea dimidiata (Monarchinae) on Rarotonga, Cook Islands. Pacific Conservation Biology 2(2): 167-176.
Saul, E. K.; Robertson, H. A.; Tiraa, A. 1998. Breeding biology of the Kakerori Pomarea dimidiata on Rarotonga, Cook Islands. Notornis 45: 255-269.
SPREP. 1999. Proceedings of the Polynesian Avifauna Conservation Workshop held in Rarotonga, 26-30 April 1999.
Robertson, H. 2000. Kakerori recovery. Wingspan 10: 27.
Anon. 2005. Major setback for Rarotonga Monarch. World Birdwatch 27: 10.
Robertson, H. A.; Saul, E. K. 2006. Conservation of Kakerori (Pomarea dimidiata) in the Cook Islands in 2004/05. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Saul, E.; Karika, I.; Robertson, H. 2007. Restoring the Rarotonga Monarch.
Robertson, H. A.; Saul, E. S. 2007. Conservation of kakerori (Pomarea dimidiata) in the Cook Islands in 2005/06. New Zealand Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Robertson, H. A.; Karika, I.; Mateariki, G.; Nia, L.; Saul, E. K. 2009. Long-term management of Kakerori (Pomarea dimidiata) in the Cook Islands. Department of Conservation, Wellington, NZ.
Robertson, H.A., Karika, I. and Saul, E.K. 2006. Translocation of Rarotonga monarchs Pomarea dimidiata within the Southern Cook Islands. Bird Conservation International 16(3): 197-215.
Further web sources of information
View photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection
Text account compilers
Derhé, M., Harding, M., Mahood, S., O'Brien, A., Pilgrim, J., Shutes, S., Stattersfield, A.
Ghestemme, T., O'Brien, M., Robertson, H., Saul, E.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Pomarea dimidiata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/06/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/06/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Vulnerable|
|Species name author||(Hartlaub & Finsch, 1871)|
|Population size||310 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||2 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|