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Grand Comoro Drongo Dicrurus fuscipennis
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Justification
This species is classified as Endangered because it has an extremely small population occupying a very small range at only one location around an active volcano. There has been a continuing decline in the area, extent and quality of native habitat at this location, but the species's population appears to be fluctuating, and not in decline.

Taxonomic source(s)
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Identification
24 cm. Starling-sized, dark bird with long, forked tail. Unglossed brown primaries and tail contrast with otherwise all-black plumage with slightly glossy, deep blue sheen in direct sunlight. Juvenile matt blackish-brown. Black bill and legs. In flight, undersides of primaries reflect light and give false impression of having pale wing-patches. Voice Typical drongo squeaks and sharp clicks and softer wit wit note.

Distribution and population
Dicrurus fuscipennis has a highly localised distribution around Mt Karthala, Grand Comoro (= Ngazidja), Comoro Islands, and is rare even there. The majority are thought to occur between 500-1,000 m around Nioumbadjou in the south-west, but birds have also been recorded at lower elevations down to almost sea level on the southwest coast, near Zikaledjou, Singani, the Denga-denga river bridge, Salimani and Mvouvouni. It is also found at Malakoff and Hantsangoma on the northern side of the mountain, and around Kourani, Tsinimouachongo, Djoumouachongo, Boboni, Mvouni and Mlima Manda on the western side (del Hoyo et al. 2009). In 1985, the total population was estimated at around 100 individuals, although the true figure may be slightly higher (R. Demey in litt. 1999).


Population justification
In 1985, it was estimated that little over 100 individuals existed, but a few more birds have since been found in the south-west (R. Demey in litt. 1999). The estimate of 100 individuals is treated as a minimum, equating to a minimum of 70 mature individuals.

Trend justification
This species's population appears to be always low and fluctuating (M. Louette per C. Marsh in litt. 2007), however the species survives in exotic degraded vegetation and does not appear to be declining (del Hoyo et al. 2009).

Ecology
It is primarily found within a 100-1150 m altitudinal zone at the lower edge of Mt Karthala forest, although it has also been found at lower elevations on the south-west coast. It appears to show a preference for forest clearings, forest edge and adjacent areas, such as plantations and fields with a well developed bush layer but few high trees, but has also been recorded in under-planted forest with a tall canopy still present, and in coconut and cacao plantations (C. Marsh in litt. 2007; del Hoyo et al. 2009). It forages singly or in pairs on large flying insects (Louette et al. 1988), and is observed singly, in pairs or in small family groups, perching relatively high in the trees, generally in a very visible post and sallying out to catch prey on the wing (del Hoyo et al. 2009). Analysis of four stomach contents revealed the consumption of beetles, grasshoppers, cockroaches and mantids, and also fruit (del Hoyo et al. 2009). The nest is a neat cup, built on a small fork at the end of an outer branch, with breeding taking place from September-December and possibly beyond (del Hoyo et al. 2009). The reasons for this species's rarity are unknown, but the fact that it occupies now mainly degraded vegetation with exotics suggests that its optimal native habitat may have already disappeared at lower altitudes and that it may now be restricted to marginal habitats (del Hoyo et al. 2009).



Threats
Most habitat has already been degraded within the known range of this species (Louette et al. 1988, Safford 2001). Since it can persist in exotic vegetation it might be expected to be abundant, and therefore the main threat to its survival is probably still unknown (R. Safford in litt. 1999, Safford 2001). It has been suggested that some localities from which it is known could be marginal habitats (Louette et al. 1988). The main threats to native forest on Mt Karthala are clearance for agriculture, invasion of exotic plant species and commercial logging on the south-west slopes. If plans to build a road to Mt Karthala's crater are resurrected, exploitation and fragmentation of the forest, and the spread of exotic species, could be accelerated (Safford 2001). Introduced rats are abundant in the forest and may predate nests; civets Viverricula indica and mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus are also potential predators (Safford 2001; del Hoyo et al. 2009).

Conservation Actions Underway
A protected area (national park, biosphere reserve or resource management area) on Mt Karthala has been proposed, but is not yet forthcoming (Louette and Stevens 1992, Safford 2001). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct more field surveys to establish the current population, range and status of the species (R. Safford in litt. 1999). Investigate possible limiting factors (R. Safford in litt. 1999). Create a protected area on Mt Karthala, extending below the native forest edge in the south, in order to encompass most of the known range of this species (Louette and Stevens 1992, Safford 2001). Develop a land-use strategy for the island (Safford 2001). Consider reforestation of grasslands on the central ridge (Safford 2001). Develop an environmental education programme on the island (Louette and Stevens 1992). Encourage locally-organised ecotourism as an alternative source of income for inhabitants of the Mt Karthala area (Safford 2001).


References
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2009. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 14: Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Louette, M.; Stevens, J. 1992. Conserving the endemic birds on the Comoro Islands, 1: general considerations on survival prospects. Bird Conservation International 2: 61-80.

Louette, M.; Stevens, J.; Bijnens, L.; Janssens, L. 1988. Survey of the endemic avifauna of the Comoro Islands. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Safford, R. J. 2001. Comoros. In: Fishpool, L.D.C.; Evans, M.I. (ed.), Important Bird Areas in Africa and associated islands: Priority sites for conservation, pp. 185-190. Pisces Publications and BirdLife International (BirdLife Conservation Series No.11), Newbury and Cambridge, UK.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

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Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Pilgrim, J., Shutes, S., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Warren, B.

Contributors
Demey, R., Louette, M., Marsh, C., Rocamora, G., Safford, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Dicrurus fuscipennis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Grand Comoro drongo (Dicrurus fuscipennis) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Dicruridae (Drongos)
Species name author (Milne-Edwards & Oustalet, 1887)
Population size 70 mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 240 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species