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Knysna Woodpecker Campethera notata

Justification
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it has a small or very small population. There is no evidence that the population is presently in decline, and there are no immediate threats to the species's habitat, but if any evidence is found to suggest an ongoing decline, the species may qualify for uplisting to a higher threat category.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Distribution and population
Campethera notata is a thinly dispersed endemic of the coastal lowlands of South Africa, extending north into southern KwaZulu-Natal and west to near Bredasdorp, Western Cape. The total range is less than 50,000 km2 and its total population has been estimated at 1,500-5,000 individuals.

Population justification
This species is locally common but thinly dispersed within its small coastal range. Its population is estimated to number 1,500-5,000 individuals, roughly equating to 1,000-3,300 mature individuals.

Trend justification
There is no evidence that the population is currently in decline.

Ecology
It is confined to coastal areas of forest, woodland, dense bush, Euphorbia scrub, or open country with large trees, extending marginally inland in places. The species feeds mainly on ants and ant larvae, as well as wood-boring beetles and their larvae (del Hoyo et al. 2002). Breeding takes place in August-November. The nest hole is excavated in a dead tree trunk or branch. It has a clutch size of 2-4 eggs, which it probably incubates for 12 days, followed by a fledging period of three or four weeks (del Hoyo et al. 2002). A lack of suitable nest-holes may limit the population in some areas.

Threats
A range contraction in KwaZulu-Natal in the 19th century has been attributed to the clearance of coastal bush for sugar-cane farming and township development.

Conservation Actions Underway
An estimated 1,000-1,500 individuals are thought to occur in reserves, e.g. Oribi Gorge Nature Reserve (del Hoyo et al. 2002). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to estimate the total population size. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Carry out research into factors that possibly limit the species's population. Increase the area of suitable habitat with protected status.

References
Barnes, K. N. 2000. The Eskom Red Data Book of birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 2002. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 7: Jacamars to Woodpeckers. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
O'Brien, A., Pilgrim, J., Robertson, P., Symes, A., Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Campethera notata. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)
Species name author (Lichtenstein, 1823)
Population size 1000-3300 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 50,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change