This species has a small population that is suspected to be declining owing to pressure from hunting for its plumes. However, it is tolerant of degraded habitats, with many rugged and inaccessible intermontane forests still supporting this species, and it is therefore classified as Vulnerable. Should this species be found to be declining at a more moderate rate, or indeed, not at all, it would qualify for downlisting to a lower category of threat.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
30 cm. Dark bird-of-paradise with stout, ivory bill, broken white eye-ring and blue wings, back and tail. Male is otherwise black with fine, blue tail plumes and two long streamers. Female has chestnut underparts. Similar spp. Both the head pattern and the blue upperparts are unique. Other congeners are larger, slimmer and longer-tailed. Voice Displaying males give a slowly cadenced series of notes wahr..wahr.. and a metallic humming when inverted, also croaking and growling contact calls. Hints Can be seen in fruiting trees but to see males in their famous inverted display, seek local guides.
Survey western boundary of range. Survey historical sites in north and east of range. Estimate population densities and sizes at known sites. Investigate tolerance of secondary forest and degraded areas for both foraging and breeding, including the mapping and monitoring of male song-perches in populous mid-montane valleys (such as the Wahgi and Tari valleys). Research rates of forest loss in preferred altitudinal range. Monitor numbers at most accessible sites such as Ambua Lodge. Monitor trade prices and quantities. Investigate hunting levels and attitudes to control amongst hunters. Create large, locally-managed forest reserves with an enforced hunting ban. Run awareness and education programmes for landowners and highland inhabitants. Raise awareness of the conservation status of the species amongst tourists. Encourage traditional land custodians to conserve their existing plumes using effective storage methods. Enforce existing legislation. Utilise its well-known image as a flagship species for ecotourism and conservation ventures.
Beehler, B. 1985. Conservation of New Guinea rainforest birds. In: Diamond, A.W.; Lovejoy, T.E. (ed.), Conservation of tropical forest birds, pp. 233-247. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Coates, B. J. 1990. The birds of Papua New Guinea, 2: passerines. Dove, Alderley, Australia.
Frith, C. B.; Beehler, B. M. 1998. The birds of paradise. Oxford University Press, Inc, New York.
Mack, A. L. 1992. The nest, egg and incubating behaviour of a Blue Bird of Paradise Paradisaea rudolphi. Emu 92: 244-246.
Pruett-Jones, S. G.; Pruett-Jones, M. A. 1988. A promiscuous mating system in the Blue Bird of Paradise Paradisaea rudolphi. Ibis 130: 373-377.
Sekhran, N.; Miller, S. 1995. Papua New Guinea country study on biological diversity. Department of Environment and Conservation, Vaigani, Papua New Guinea.
van den Bergh, M. O. L. 2009. Destructive attraction: Blue Birds of Paradise and local inhabitants: an equilibrium?.
Whiteside, R. 1998. The Blue Bird-of-paradise Paradisaea rudolphi: display and behaviour of wild birds. Australian Bird Watcher 17: 319-327.
Further web sources of information
Hear sounds for this species from xeno-canto, the community database of shared bird sounds from around the world.
Text account compilers
Derh, M., Dutson, G., Mahood, S., O'Brien, A., Stattersfield, A.
Beehler, B., Bishop, K., Leary, T., Dutson, G., Supuma, M.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Paradisaea rudolphi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/12/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/12/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Vulnerable|
|Family||Paradisaeidae (Birds of paradise)|
|Species name author||(Finsch, 1885)|
|Population size||2500-9999 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||21,800 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|