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Red Bird-of-paradise Paradisaea rubra
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

This species has a very small range and probably has a small population. It is likely to be declining slowly as a result of limited habitat loss, and trends in human activity and population change should be monitored carefully to clarify the level of threat. It is currently considered Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Distribution and population
Paradisea rubra is endemic to the West Papuan islands of Waigeo, Batanta, Gemien and Saonek off north-west Papua (formerly Irian Jaya), Indonesia, where it is common in suitable habitats.

Population justification
The population size of this species has not been quantified, but it is described as common in suitable habitats.

Trend justification
Precise data on population trends are unavailable, but this species presumably remains stable across much of its range, as habitats are relatively intact. Habitat loss has occurred on a local scale, and some persecution occurs, so a slow decline is suspected overall.

This species occurs in forest and forest edge in the lowlands and hills, up to 600 m (Beehler et al. 1986, Gibbs 1993, Poulsen and Frolander 1994, Eastwood 1996a).

Waigeo's rugged relief and lack of infrastructure suggest there may be no serious immediate threats to its forests. Selective logging has been reported in the north of Waigeo, the south-east corner of the island was ravaged by fire in 1982, and there are concerns over a cobalt mining concession on the island (Dekker and Argeloo 1993, WWF-IUCN 1994-1995, Dekker and McGowan 1995, Sujatnika et al. 1995). Logging on Batanta (where the only protected area is only 100 km2) is resulting in major habitat loss but this species's tolerance of logged forest is poorly known. As well as possibly declining from habitat degradation, this species is hunted locally for skins and possibly cage-birds (Frith and Beehler 1988, D. Gibbs in litt. 2000).

Conservation Actions Underway
Pulau Waigeo nature reserve, established in the late 1980s, covers 1,530 km2, but there are reports that it may be substantially reduced in size (Holmes 1989, Dekker and McGowan 1995). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct repeated surveys within the species's range to determine its current distribution and abundance, as well as assess population trends and rates of habitat loss. Conduct ecological studies to improve understanding of its precise habitat requirements, tolerance of secondary habitats and response to fragmentation. Ensure the future integrity of existing protected areas within the species's range, e.g. Pulau Waigeo.

Beehler, B. M.; Pratt, T. K.; Zimmerman, D. A. 1986. Birds of New Guinea. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Dekker, R. W. R. J.; McGowan, P. J. K. 1995. Megapodes: an action plan for their conservation 1995-1999. International Union for Nature Conservation and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland.

Dekker, R.; Argeloo, M. 1993. Bruijn's Brush-turkey Aegopodius bruijnii remains a mystery. Megapode Newsletter 7(2): 15-17.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2009. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 14: Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Eastwood, C. 1996. A trip to Irian Jaya. Muruk 8(1): 12-23.

Frith, C. B.; Beehler, B. M. 1998. The birds of paradise. Oxford University Press, Inc, New York.

Gibbs, D. 1993. Irian Jaya, Indonesia, 21 January--12 March 1991: a site guide for birdwatchers, with brief notes from 1992.

Holmes, D. A. 1989. Status report on Indonesian Galliformes. Kukila 3(3/4): 133-143.

Poulsen, B. O.; Frolander, A. 1994. Birding Irian Jaya, Indonesian New Guinea.

Sujatnika; Jepson, P.; Soehartono, T. R.; Crosby, M. J.; Mardiastuti, A. 1995. Conserving Indonesian biodiversity: the Endemic Bird Area approach. BirdLife International Indonesia Programme, Bogor.

WWF/IUCN. 1994-1995. Centres of plant diversity: a guide and strategy for their conservation. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Gilroy, J., Taylor, J.

Gibbs, D.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Paradisaea rubra. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Red bird-of-paradise (Paradisaea rubra) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Paradisaeidae (Birds of paradise)
Species name author Daudin, 1800
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,900 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species