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Yellow-billed Magpie Pica nuttalli

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2ae 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2014 Near Threatened
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50000-99999 poor Estimated 2014
Population trend Increasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.1 - - -
Population justification: The species's population was estimated at c.180,000 individuals in 2003, but is thought to have been reduced by 49% by 2006 (del Hoyo et al. 2009) owing to West Nile Virus. The population now appears to be in recovery (W. Koenig in litt. 2012), thus the population is placed in the band for 50,000-99,999 mature individuals, which is assumed to equate to c.75,000-150,000 individuals in total.
Trend justification: Over the last 40 years of the 20th century, Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and/or Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data indicate that the population of this species was stable (Butcher and Niven 2007), although an analysis of CBC data by Airola et al. (2007) suggests that the species had been increasing on average between 1980/1981 and 2001/2002, while an analysis of CBC data from Califronia's Central Valley indicates a steady decline of c.10% annually on average between 1995 and 2006. However, the species suffered high levels of mortality and a severe population decline owing to West Nile virus, to which it is highly susceptible (Airola et al. 2007, Crosbie et al. 2008). Following the documented arrival of the virus in California in summer 2003 (Reisen et al. 2004), data have suggesting a decline of 42-49% from 2004 to 2006 (Crosbie et al. 2008). Christmas Bird Count (CBC) data from the Lower Sacramento Valley suggest that numbers of this species declined by 48% between 2004/2005 and 2005/2006, with surveyed numbers in 2005/2006 having declined by 38% compared to the previous 10-year average when accounting for the effects of bad weather (Airola et al. 2007). The population appeared to reach a low in 2007-2008, and since then has shown signs of recovery, although it was still depleted in 2010/2011 compared to data collected since the late 1950s (W. Koenig in litt. 2012). Given that the population appears to have crashed in 2003-2008, and has shown some signs of recovery, it is suspected that the species has undergone a moderately rapid population reduction (25-29%) over the past three generations (21 years).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
USA Native Extant Yes      

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluct Past Impact
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases / Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents / Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - -  

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pica nuttalli. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Corvidae (Crows and jays)
Species name author (Audubon, 1837)
Population size 50000-99999 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) -
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species