email a friend
printable version
Black-billed Magpie Pica pica
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type   Average mass -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.1 - - -
Population justification: Rich et al. (2004) estimated the global population to number 3,400,000 individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 7,500,000-19,000,000 breeding pairs, equating to 22,500,000-57,000,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 45,900,000-228,000,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in China; c.100-100,000 introduced breeding pairs in Taiwan; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Korea; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs (possibly introduced) in Japan and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: This species has had stable population trends over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) In Europe, trends since 1980 have been stable, based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant       Yes
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant        
Andorra Native Extant       Yes
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Belarus Native Extant       Yes
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Bhutan Native Extant Yes      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Bulgaria Native Extant       Yes
Canada Native Extant        
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Croatia Native Extant       Yes
Cyprus Native Extant       Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant       Yes
Denmark Native Extant       Yes
Estonia Native Extant       Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant        
Finland Native Extant       Yes
France Native Extant       Yes
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant     Yes Yes
Greece Native Extant       Yes
Hungary Native Extant       Yes
India Native Extant Yes      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant       Yes
Ireland Native Extant       Yes
Israel Native Extant Yes      
Italy Native Extant       Yes
Japan Introduced Extant Yes      
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Laos Native Extant Yes      
Latvia Native Extant       Yes
Lebanon Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Liechtenstein Native Extant       Yes
Lithuania Native Extant       Yes
Luxembourg Native Extant       Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Moldova Native Extant       Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Morocco Native Extant        
Myanmar Native Extant Yes      
Netherlands Native Extant       Yes
North Korea Native Extant Yes      
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Oman Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Romania Native Extant       Yes
Russia Native Extant Yes     Yes
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant       Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant       Yes
Saudi Arabia Native Extant       Yes
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Slovakia Native Extant       Yes
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
South Korea Native Extant Yes      
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sweden Native Extant       Yes
Switzerland Native Extant       Yes
Syria Native Extant       Yes
Taiwan (China) Native Extant Yes      
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Thailand Vagrant Extant        
Tunisia Native Extant        
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Ukraine Native Extant       Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes
USA Native Extant Yes      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Vietnam Native Extant Yes      
Western Sahara Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Saudi Arabia Jabal Qaha - Lajib gorge site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Raydah escarpment site factsheet
Saudi Arabia Shallal ad-Dahna site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land Suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land Suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland Suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland Suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens Suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens Suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas Suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas Suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry Suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry Suitable breeding
Forest Temperate Suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate Suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry Suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry Suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate Suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate Suitable breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) Suitable breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) Suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation Suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation Suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry Suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry Suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate Suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate Suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 0 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - -  
Food - human - - -  
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - -  
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Subsistence, National
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Subsistence, National
Food - human - - - Subsistence, National

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Pica pica. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Corvidae (Crows and jays)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) -
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment