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Guadeloupe Woodpecker Melanerpes herminieri

Justification
This species has a very small range in which habitat degradation is causing the population to decline. However, the range is not yet severely fragmented or restricted to few locations. For these reasons, the species is classified as Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Distribution and population
Melanerpes herminieri is endemic to Guadeloupe (to France) and inhabits the two main islands, Basse-Terre and  Grande-Terre. 

Population justification
The population was estimated to comprise 7,920 pairs in 381 km2 on Basse-Terre, and 2,410 pairs in 135 km2 on Grande-Terre in 1994 (Villard and Rousteau 1998). Surveys in 2007 revealed no significant change, but a different methodology calculated a total population of 8,469 pairs (Villard et al. 2010). The population is therefore estimated to number at least 16,000 mature individuals, roughly equivalent to 24,000 individuals in total.

Trend justification
The population is stable (Villard et al. 2010).

Ecology
It inhabits semi-deciduous forest on igneous and clay ground, evergreen forest, mangroves and swamp forest (Villard and Rousteau 1998), and excavates nest holes in the trunks of dead trees (Raffaele et al. 1998). It occurs from sea-level to the tree-line at 1,000 m, but is most common at 100-700 m (Winkler et al. 1995, Villard and Rousteau 1998). Habitats with the highest estimated population densities were seasonal evergreen secondary growth forest, followed by swamp forest and rainforest (Villard et al. 2010). Food items taken include a variety of invertebrates, vertebrates and fruit (Villard 2000).



Threats
Clear-cutting and the removal of dead trees are the main threats, but damage from hurricanes, road construction, airport enlargement and land development are all concerning (Raffaele et al. 1998, Villard and Rousteau 1998, Villard et al. 2010). Introduced rats may also be a problem (Raffaele et al. 1998).

Conservation Actions Underway
About 27% of remaining habitat is protected within the Guadeloupe national park (Villard et al. 2010). Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor populations regularly. Discourage the removal of dead trees. Discourage clear-cutting and the siting of new roads and airports in valuble habitats. Investigate the impact of rats on nesting success.

References
Raffaele, H.; Wiley, J.; Garrido, O.; Keith, A.; Raffaele, J. 1998. Birds of the West Indies. Christopher Helm, London.

Villard, P; Feldmann, P.; Ferchal, A.; Pavis, C. 2010. Population size and habitat associations of the endemic Guadeloupe Woodpecker. Journal of Field Ornithology 81(3): 278-286.

Villard, P. 2000. Manipulation des proies et diversité du régime alimentaire du Pic de la Guadeloupe Melanerpes herminieri. Alauda 64: 257-264.

Villard, P.; Rousteau, A. 1998. Habitats, density, population size, and the future of the Guadeloupe Woodpecker (Melanerpes herminieri). Ornitologia Neotropical 9(2): 121-128.

Winkler, H.; Christie, D. A.; Nurney, D. 1995. Woodpeckers: a guide to the woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Wege, D., Isherwood, I., Benstead, P., Mahood, S.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Melanerpes herminieri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)
Species name author (Lesson, 1830)
Population size 16000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,500 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species