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White-collared Jay Cyanolyca viridicyanus

Justification

Based on a model of future deforestation it is suspected that the population of this species will decline by 25-30% over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Taxonomic note
Gender agreement of species name follows David and Gosselin (2002a).

Synonym(s)
Cyanolyca viridicyana Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Cyanolyca viridicyana Stotz et al. (1996)

Identification
34cm, 82-127g. Almost completely cerulean blue, with forehead, lores and ear coverts black and the throat and upper breast dark blue. The forecrown is white and this extends around the upper edge of ear coverts and edge of face to connect with a thin white border which divides the throat and upper breast. Subspecies C. v. cyanolaema is dark blue on the throat and C. v. jolyaea is more purplish blue and has the greatest contrast between the throat and the black ear coverts. Similar spp. Turquoise Jay C. turcosa has a black border dividing the throat from the breast, the throat is also more blue than C. viridicyanus. Voice Complex and variable, with many variations and almost endless combinations. A frequently cited phrase is a rapid staccato chatter likened to a tinny machine-gun, also a mellow piped and repeated "wau".

Distribution and population
C. v. viridicyanus occurs in NW Bolivia, C. v. cyanolaema in SE Peru (Cuzco and Puno) and C. v. jolyaea in N and C Peru (from Junin to Amazonas).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 29.4-30.1% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (20 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It is therefore suspected to decline by a rate approaching 30% over three generations.

Ecology
Montane forest up to stunted elfin forest between 1600m and 4000m, though primarily up to 3000m. Also recorded in secondary growth where bamboo and tree-ferns are abundant. Forages in the canopy and subcanopy, investigating epiphytes and leaf clusters along branches.
Sedentary, breeding undocumented, though video of pair nest-building shows an medium sized open cup nest made primarily of small branches at mid-level.

Threats
Projected deforestation is the primary threat affecting this species (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006).

References
Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Christie, D. 2009. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 14: Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Madge, S.; Burn, H. 1993. Crows and jays: a guide to the crows, jays and magpies of the world. Helm Information, Robertsbridge, U.K.

Ridgely, R. S.; Tudor, G. 1989. The birds of South America. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Schulenberg, T. S., Stotz, D. F. Lane, D. F. O'Neill, J. P. Parker, T. A. III. 2007. Birds of Peru.

Soares-Filho, B.S.; Nepstad, D.C.; Curran, L.M.; Cerqueira, G.C.; Garcia, R. A.; Ramos, C. A.; Voll, E.; McDonald, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Cyanolyca viridicyanus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Corvidae (Crows and jays)
Species name author (Lafresnaye & D'Orbigny, 1838)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 198,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species