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Tawny Piculet Picumnus fulvescens

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened because, although it is known to tolerate some habitat disturbance, it is suspected to be declining moderately rapidly. However, further research is needed regarding the impact of habitat degradation on this species.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Identification
10 cm. Tiny, fulvous-brown and black woodpecker. Rich fulvous-brown underparts, with faint pale streaks on breast. Brown upperparts and wings. Black crown, dotted white. Brown ear-coverts. Male presumed to have some red on forehead and/or crown. Voice Descending series of calls driée driée driée ...

Distribution and population
Picumnus fulvescens was, until recently, considered to have a disjunct range in the Atlantic forest and Caatinga of north-east Brazil. Recent surveys, however, found it at four new widely distributed sites: Vale do Catimbau, Pernambuco (SNE 2002); Ubajara National Park, Ceara (A. Renaudier in litt. 2005); Fazenda Tamanduá, Paraíba (Neves et al. 1999); and Usina Serra Grande, Alagoas (Silveira et al. 2003). The new records suggest that its distribution is not as disjunct as first thought. Observations made at Murici (J. M. Barnett in litt. 2003) and Usina Serra Grande suggest that, in the Atlantic Forest region, this piculet uses drier second-growth forest and may be colonizing regenerating cleared areas. The species has been recorded in low secondary caatinga, and seems to be adaptable to human disturbance (as other Picumnus). Its occurrence in southern Piauí seems marginal, as its possible competitor, the Spotted Piculet P. pygmaeus is common there (F. Olmos in litt. 2003). The number of localities (13) and extent of occurrence, are now estimated to exceed the B criterion at the Vulnerable level. Similarly the rate of population decline is now not thought to be so rapid, and the species has been reclassified as Near Threatened, and indeed may warrant downlisting to Least Concern. It is scarce, with most records pertaining to one or two birds (Olmos 1993, Wege and Long 1995, F. Brammer in litt. 1998, J. Minns in litt. 1998, A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). It inhabits deciduous, semi-deciduous and secondary forest, and is regularly observed in degraded secondary scrub, from the lowlands to c.950 m (Parker et al. 1996, G. M. Kirwan in litt. 1999, A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). There has been massive deforestation in Alagoas and Pernambuco, largely as a result of logging and conversion to sugarcane plantations and pastureland. The extent of forest at Murici has been reduced from 70 km2 in the 1970s to 30 km2 of highly disturbed and fragmented habitat in 1999 (J. M. Goerck in litt. 1999). In January 1999, new logging roads were evident and such forest fragments are severely threatened by fires spreading from adjacent plantations (J. M. Goerck in litt. 1999, A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). The species has not been relocated around Serra da Capivara National Park, and significant areas outside the park have been degraded by cattle raising and wood collection to fuel the local brick factories (F. Olmos in litt. 2003), a problem widespread in northeastern Brazil. Potentially suitable habitat in the Caatinga has been reduced through agricultural expansion, grazing and burning. It occurs in Pedra Talhada, Guaribas and Serra Negra Biological Reserves, Seridó Ecological Station, Tapacurá Ecological Station, Serra da Capivara National Park and Araripe National Forest (Wege and Long 1995, F. Brammer in litt. 1998). At Pedra Talhada, significant areas are being reforested with native trees (A. Studer per A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). Protection at this reserve is enforced by guards and apparently welcomed by local communities (A. Studer per A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). Vale do Catimbau is expected to become a National Park soon.

Population justification
This is a poorly known species and no population estimates are available. It is considered scarce.

Trend justification
The species is suspected to be declining at a moderately rapid rate, owing to on-going deforestation in the region.

Ecology
It inhabits deciduous, semi-deciduous and secondary forest, and is regularly observed in degraded secondary scrub, from the lowlands to c.950 m (Parker et al. 1996, G. M. Kirwan in litt. 1999, A. Whittaker in litt. 1999).

Threats
There has been massive deforestation in Alagoas and Pernambuco, largely as a result of logging and conversion to sugarcane plantations and pastureland. The extent of forest at Murici has been reduced from 70 km2 in the 1970s to 30 km2 of highly disturbed and fragmented habitat in 1999 (J. M. Goerck in litt. 1999). In January 1999, new logging roads were evident and such forest fragments are severely threatened by fires spreading from adjacent plantations (J. M. Goerck in litt. 1999, A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). Potentially suitable habitat in the Caatinga has been reduced through agricultural expansion, grazing and burning, but the species's distribution in the region (and consequently potential threats) is poorly known.


Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in Pedra Talhada and Serra Negra Biological Reserves, Tapacurá Ecological Station, Serra da Capivara National Park and Araripe National Forest (Wege and Long 1995, F. Brammer in litt. 1998). At Pedra Talhada, significant areas are being reforested with native trees (A. Studer per A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). Protection at this reserve is enforced by guards and apparently welcomed by local communities (A. Studer per A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey sites in east Pernambuco to ascertain its current status. Survey potentially suitable habitat in the caatinga. Designate a biological reserve at Murici and ensure its de facto protection (J. M. Goerck in litt. 1999). Continue conservation efforts at Pedra Talhada. Resolve the confusing taxonomic relationship between the saturatus subspecies and P. limae.

References
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 2002. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 7: Jacamars to Woodpeckers. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Neves, R. M. L.; Telino, W. R. J.; Nascimento, J. L. X. 1999. Aves da Fazenda Tamanduá, Santa Teresinha, Paraíba.

Olmos, F. 1993. Birds of Serra da Capivara National Park in the "caatinga" of north-eastern Brazil. Bird Conservation International 3: 21-36.

Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Pinto, O. M. de O. 1978. Novo catálogo das aves do Brasil. Primeira parte. Sa1o Paulo, Empresa Gráfica da Revista dos Tribunais.

Short, L. L. 1982. Woodpeckers of the world. Delaware Museum of Natural History, Greenville, Delaware.

Silveira, L. F.; Olmos, F.; Long, A. 2003. Birds in Atlantic Forest fragments in Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. Cotinga 20: 32-46.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Winkler, H.; Christie, D. A.; Nurney, D. 1995. Woodpeckers: a guide to the woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, U.K.

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Williams, R.

Contributors
Barnett, J., Brammer, F., Goerck, J., Kirwan, G., Minns, J., Olmos, F., Renaudier, A., Sagot-Martin, F., Studer, A., Whittaker, A., da Silva, M., de Melo Dantas, S.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Picumnus fulvescens. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Picidae (Woodpeckers)
Species name author Stager, 1962
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 77,400 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species